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Pilot Crackers

>On 3 Mar 2006 at 9:13, Kenneth wrote:
> Dear Phaedrus;
> I'm looking for a recipe to make homemade Saloon Pilot Crackers, or
> Pilot Crackers like those common in Hawaii.  These are not hardtack,
> but rather like a larger and somewhat stiffer "saltine" minus the
> salt.
> Kenneth 

Hello Kenneth,

I cannot find a recipe for the Diamond product, but you can buy them here:


but I found it stated several times that "pilot crackers" are the same thing as "hardtack". If so, see below. Perhaps you have tried the wrong hardtack recipe.

It appears that perhaps there are two types of "pilot crackers", one popular on the Northeastern coast of the continental U.S. (Maine in particular), and the other popular in Hawaii. However both versions began as "hardtack."

See this article from the Honolulu Star Bulletin

and this article, which says:

"Hard Tack, in Hawai`i known as Saloon Pilot Cracker and known in Alaska as Pilot Bread, and their variants are found in places where the tall sailing ships of yore off-loaded their wares. Hawai`i was one of those places. Local bakeries were created to supply the ships with hard tack. These easily stored, compact wafers of carbohydrate became popular with the locals and quickly extablished themselves as part of the local cuisine."




1 1/2 Cups milk 
4 Cups flour 
4 Tablespoons butter 
3 Teaspoons brown sugar 
1 1/2 Teaspoons salt 

Serves: 12 

Mix the ingredients into a dough and roll out to a thickness of 
about 1/2 inch. Cut into squares. Prick the squares with a fork 
or knife. Place them on a lightly greased baking pan and bake 
at 400 degrees F for 20 to 30 minutes, until golden brown. 
Yield: 24 2 x 2-inch bars.

Calories: 101
Carbohydrates: 15.9
Cholesterol: 2.8
Dietary Fiber : .5
Fiber: .6
Protein: 2.5
Saturated Fat: 1.2
Sodium: 141
Total Fat: 2.8
From: Donald Gryniewski 
Sent: Friday, April 04, 2014 6:58 PM
Subject: Pilot Bread Crackers

FYI Pilot Bread Crackers are available from The Ready Store @ www. They come in a vacuum packed can 1 lb 14.6 oz for $14.99. 
They are delicious, crispy with a buttery flavor. Hardtack had to be soaked in liquid to soften it enough to eat. Reference British naval  
hist of sailing on the wooden ships of the line. In any case they are under the Mountain House brand. The store specializes in survival 
freeze dried or vacuum packed foods,water purifiers. Interesting site. I'm currently searching for the recipe. They are good as a snack also.

Hi Donald,

Thanks for the information. I note that The Ready Store has both the Mountain House brand.

and theSaratoga Farms brand.

There抯 a homemade recipe here: Pilot Bread Recipe


Italian Chili

On 1 Mar 2006 at 20:06, Kim wrote:

> Can you find the recipe for Johnny Carino's Italian Chili.  I would be
> extremely grateful.
> Thanks,
> Kim

Hello Kim,

This is all that I can find.


Beef Italian Chili - Tastes like Johnny Carino's

1 lb. ground beef 
1/2 lb. bulk Italian sausage 
1 medium onion, chopped 
1/2 cup green pepper, chopped 
Fresh minced garlic, if desired 
1 (30 oz) jar Ragu Super Chunky Mushroom spaghetti sauce, or 
  favorite brand 
1 (15 oz.) can black beans, drained and rinsed 
1 (15 oz.) can chili beans, drained 
1 (14 1/2 oz.) can diced tomatoes, undrained 
1 (4 oz.) jar or can of sliced mushrooms, drained 
1 cup water 
1/3 cup sliced pepperoni, halved 
5 teaspoons chili powder, or more to taste 
1/2 teaspoon salt 
Pepper, to taste 
Crushed red pepper, to taste 

In a large pot, brown beef, sausage, onion, green pepper, and garlic 
(if using); drain well. 
Add remaining ingredients; bring to a boil. Reduce heat; simmer,
uncovered, for 30 minutes.


On 3 Mar 2006 at 13:47, Jim wrote:

> I saw your recipes for SOS - Military, and they all have the same
> problem - they use chipped beef. When I was in the USMC at Parris
> Island in the early 1960's it was made with hamburger. Or ground beef.
> Over the years I have created a "look alike" which starts with a white
> Hollandaise sauce. I prepare the sauce and put it aside.
> Then I cook the ground beef "scrambled" in a large skillet drain and
> put aside.
> Then I make a beef flavored gravy starting with 4 tbl spoons of
> butter, flour, and beef broth or bullion in hot water with seasonings
> (Garlic powder, onion, pepper etc
> Add back the cooked meat, Hollandaise sauce, then reheat, and thin
> with beef stock until "good".
> If you can find an Original Navy or USMC recipe along this line -
> email me 
> Thanks
> Jim 

Hello Jim,

The original S.O.S. recipe, dating before 1900, was created as a way to use up leftover roast beef from a previous meal. The cooks chopped it up and served it over toast with a flour gravy to stretch it into another meal. That was the origin of the dish. The use of ground beef to make it came later. Also later came the use of that stuff in jars that's called "chipped beef". The dish made with that "chipped beef" in the jars is not comparable to the S.O.S. made with ground beef, which can be excellent. However the best S.O.S. that I've ever had was made with leftover roast beef from a good roast of beef, just like the original.

I do have a USMC recipe for S.O.S. using ground beef, though. See below. Below it is a recipe for S.O.S. from a 1910 Manual for Army Cooks from Wikipedia.




1 pound ground beef 
1 1/2 tablespoons butter 
3 tablespoons all-purpose flour 
1 cup beef broth 
1/2 cup evaporated milk 
salt and pepper to taste 

Brown the ground beef in a medium skillet over medium-high heat, until
meat is no longer pink. Drain excess fat and set aside. Melt the butter or
margarine in a medium saucepan over medium heat. Slowly add the flour,
stirring constantly, to form a brown roux. Pour in beef broth and milk,
mixing well. Add ground beef, then season with salt and pepper to taste.
The 1910 edition of the Manual for Army Cooks provides the following recipe, 
for a quantity sufficient for 60 men.

Chipped beef on toast (S.O.S.)
15 pounds chipped beef 
1 pound of fat, butter preferred 
11/4 lbs of flour 
2 12-oz cans of evaporated milk 
1 bunch parsley 
1/4 oz pepper 
6 quarts beef stock 

Brown the flour in the melted fat. 
Dissolve the milk in the beef stock, and then add that to the pot. 
Stir this together slowly to prevent lumping, and then add the beef. 
Cook for a few minutes, add the parsley, and serve over toast. 
Retrieved from ""

100% Rye Bread

On 2 Mar 2006 at 19:30, Olivia wrote:

> Hello,
> I have been searching using Google and came across your site.  I have
> checked the most popular recipes and the archives.  Could be mistaken
> but I couldn't find what I was looking for.
> I require a recipe for 100% rye bread - using no other flour other
> than rye. Preferably for commercial use.
> Your assistance would be greatly appreciated.
> Kind regards
> Olivia
> South Africa

Hello Olivia,

I could not find any commercial recipes for 100% rye bread. However, perhaps you can adapt one of the below recipes.


Rye Bread - Rugbr鴇 
Makes 4 loaves 

2 packages dry yeast 
1 quart warm water 
11 cups rye flour 
2 tablespoons salt 
1 teaspoon caraway seed

Dissolve yeast in water. Add 4 cups flour. Beat into smooth dough. 
Let rise in the bowl in a warm place until doubled in bulk. 

Add salt, caraway seeds, and remaining flour. Knead about 15 minutes 
on a lightly floured board. 

Divide dough into four equal parts. Shape into loaves, and place 
in greased pans (9󬊃) to rise in a warm place until doubled in 

Brush tops with cold water. 

Bake 1 hour in a preheated 350 oven. 
Easy Rye Bread 

Servings:about 6, less if you're greedy 

Preparation Time: 45 mins. 

1 cup milk 
1/2 tsp salt 
1/2 tsp sugar 
1 cup rye flour 
4 tbsp melted butter 

Mix milk, salt, and sugar in a bowl. Stir in the flour and beat 
until smooth. Add the butter, mixing until blended. Pour into a
well-buttered and floured 9x12" baking pan. Bake in a very hot 
oven (450F) for about 30 minutes or until slightly browned in 
spots. Serve hot with butter. Makes about 6 servings. 

Source: The Finnish Cookbook by Beatrice A. Ojakangas
Black Rye Bread

3 k (6 lbs) coarsely ground rye flour
1 l (1 quart) water
starter, salt


1/2 k (1 lb) rye flour
50 g (2 oz) fresh yeast
1 l (1 quart) warm water

Starter is used to leaven black rye bread. Starter is usually 
a leftover of dough from the last bread baking. Just before 
baking, the saved piece of dough is dissolved in warm water 
and is added to the newly mixed dough. Should there be no 
starter a new starter is prepared before mixing new dough. 
Mix all starter ingredients, keep in a warm spot to ensure
maximum fermentation. This starter should be ready in 24 hours. 
Starter gives bread an agreeable, pleasant sour taste. Every 
starter has its own particular taste. Some homemakers add sour 
milk in place of water. 

To make dough, heat water to 100-110F/40-45C, pour half of the 
flour, starter and mix well. Sprinkle dough with flour and set 
in a warm spot to ferment. During fermentation the volume of 
dough will almost triple. Fermentation is complete after about 
14 hours. Then beat dough, add remaining flour, salt and knead 
well. Smooth top of dough, dampen with wet hands, cover and set 
in warm spot to rise for about 3 hours.

Prepare baking pans by lining them with maple or cabbage leaves 
or dust with flour. 

Form oblong loaves, smooth tops with damp hands. Bake in preheated 
oven at 400F/200C, for about 2-3 hours. Bread is done when it gives 
off a solid sound. Dampen tops of loaves with cold water, cover 
loaves with a light linen cloth and let cool at room temperature. 
Do not place freshly baked loaves in a cold place for that will 
cause the crust to separate. 

Black rye bread remains fresh for up to 2 weeks when refrigerated.
Scalded Rye Bread

2 k (4 lbs) rye flour
1 1/2 l (6 cups) water, scalding hot
1/2 cup caraway seed, salt 
dried cabbage or maple leaves to line baking pans

Take one third of the flour, scald with boiling water, mix well. 
Cover and let rest in warm spot. Dissolve starter in warm water 
and add to dough and mix well. Cover and let rest in warm spot 
about 24 hours. Fermenting dough needs to be beaten 4 or 5 times 
so that more air is incorporated into the dough. Extra air is 
needed for yeast activity. 

When dough has reached full fermentation, add remaining flour, 
caraway seed, salt and knead until dough does not stick to hands. 
Cover and let rise for about 6 hours. Scalded bread needs longer 

Wet hands and form 2 small loaves, arrange leaves in baking pans 
or sprinkle pans with flour, place loaves in pans and bake in 
preheated oven at 400F/180C, for about 2 hours.

Remove loaves from oven, dampen tops, cover with linen cloth and 
set to cool. 

Scalded bread has a sweet-sour taste and remains fresh for a long 
Bread With Yeast

12 cups rye flour
3 tablespoons sugar
50 g (2 oz) fresh yeast
1 l (1 quart) whey, butter milk or water
pinch of salt
1/2 cup beer or water
1/2 cup caraway seed

Heat whey (butter milk or water) to 95F/30-35C, add yeast blended 
with sugar and let proof for 15 minutes. Add half of the flour, 
mix well, cover and let rise for 1 hour. Then add remaining flour,
caraway seed, salt and knead until dough is not sticky. Cover dough, 
set in warm spot and let rise for about an hour. Wet hands and form 
2 oblong loaves, place in leaf lined baking pans and set in warm 
spot for another rising. Before baking, paint tops with beer or 
water. Bake in preheated oven at 375F/190C, for about 2 hours. 
When bread is done paint tops again with water and cover with linen 
cloth until cooled. This will make a soft crust.
Lithuanian Black Rye Bread With Potatoes

10 k (20 lbs) rye flour
4 l (4 quarts) water
2 k (4 lbs) potatoes, cooked in their skins
100 g (3 oz) salt


Peel and rice potatoes. Mix one third of the flour with starter, 
riced potatoes and mix well with water heated to 95F/35C. Sprinkle 
top of dough with flour and place in warm spot to ferment. Add 
remaining flour and proceed with same steps as for ordinary bread. 

Bangladeshi Recipes


Beef 2 lbs
Oil 1/2 cup
Onion paste 1/4 cup
Ginger paste 1 tbsp
Garlic paste 2 tsp
Turmeric paste 2 tsp
Chili paste 1 tsp
Cumin paste 2 tsp
Coriander paste 2 tbsp
Ground pepper 1 tsp
Cinnamon 3 1" sticks
Cardamom 3
Bay leaf 1
Potatoes 1 lb

  Cut the meat into 1 inch cubes. Mix all the ingredients except 
potatoes with the meat and half of the oil. Cover the meat with 
an equal amount of water and cook under medium heat. When the water 
has evaporated, stir fry the meat for about 10/15 minutes. 
Meanwhile, peel the potatoes, and make cute them into large 
pieces. Fry the potatoes in the rest if the oil until they start 
turning brown. Add the potatoes to the meat and stir fry them a 
bit longer, making sure that the potatoes and meat does not start
breaking apart. After about 15 minutes, add a bit more water to 
dissolve the spices that may be sticking to the pot and cook covered 
in medium heat for another 10-15 minutes. When the potatoes are cooked
keep covered in low heat for another few minutes.
Gulaab Jamun (Fried Milk Balls)


Whole dried milk (mawa ) 1 cup
Refined flour  2 tbsp..
Sugar 1-1/2 cup
Baking powder 1/4 tsp.
Cardamom powder 1/4 tsp.
Water 3 cup
Ghee as required


1.  Mix sugar, water and cardamom powder and cook until the syrup 
becomes thick.
2. Mix mawa, refined flour, baking powder and water and make soft, 
smooth dough (Water should be just sufficient for kneading a smooth dough).
3. Make small balls of equal size. Be sure that the balls ("jamuns") 
are smooth and no crack develops. Keep aside.
4. Heat ghee in a kadhai / deep frying pan.
5. Deep fry the balls over medium heat until golden brown.
6. Put the balls in hot syrup and keep aside for 10-12 minutes.
7. Gulab Jamuns are ready. Warm before serving.
Coconut Pancakes  Make about 15 small pancakes
Mal Pua

In a bowl, mix: 1 cup dried coconut, 1 cup rice (or wheat) flour, 
1 cup milk

Mix should be the consistency of a runny paste. Add more milk, 
a drop at a time, if necessary.

Sprinkle in: 1 to 2 tablespoons sugar and seeds from 1 cardamom pod,

Heat enough oil for deep-frying (about 2 inches deep) in a wok or 
large frying pan, and when it is very hot, take a spoonful of the 
mixture and slide it into the oil. It will form a small pancake. 
Deep-fry on both sides to a golden brown. It works best to do one 
at a time. Remove from oil. Drain on paper towels or newspaper.

Eat them plain, or with honey, or make a syrup by boiling 1 cup 
water and 1 cup sugar 10 to 20 minutes until a syrup forms.


Copyright (c) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Phaedrus