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Seeing Eye Dogs

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Andi" 
To: "phaedrus" 
Sent: Friday, March 19, 2004 1:33 PM
Subject: Seeing Eye Dogs

Unka? How did Seeing Eye Dogs come to be?

Andi in Alaska

Hi Andi,

The history of blind people using dogs for varying degrees of assistance goes back longer than is documented, but the formal training of dogs to assist the blind began after World War One. After the war, a school was set up briefly in Pottsdam, Germany to train dogs to assist blinded war veterans. The existence of this school was brief, but it caught the attention of Dorothy Eustis, an American dog trainer who was living in Switzerland. Ms Eustis visited the Pottsdam school and wrote an article about it that appeared in the November 5, 1927 issue of "The Saturday Evening Post." The title of the article was "The Seeing Eye", taken from Proverbs 20:12. Ms. Eustis was already working with German Shepherds for the purpose of training them as working dogs.

Back in the U.S., a young blind man named Morris Frank, of Nashville, Tennessee, heard about the article and wrote to Ms. Eustis asking her to train a dog for him so that he would not have to depend so much on other people. He promised that, in return, he would train others. Ms. Eustis agreed, and Morris went to Switzerland where he met Buddy, the first "Seeing Eye" dog. After training Morris and Buddy, Ms. Eustis sent them back to America with $10,000 to establish the first guide dog school in America. "The Seeing Eye" was incorporated in Nashville on January 29, 1929, and in 1931 the school moved to New Jersey. There are other guide dog schools, but "The Seeing Eye" was the first, and technically only dogs trained there can be called "Seeing Eye" dogs.



----- Original Message ----- 
From: Barb
To: phaedrus
Sent: Friday, March 19, 2004 9:18 AM
Subject: Pithivier, Puff Pastry and Almond Cream Filling

> Uncle Phaedrus,  Could uou please point me in the right direction to find
> visual instructions on "How to make Puff Pastry," along with a recipe for
> a "Pithivier" using an almond cream filling.  I would also like to know 
> how to do the decorative score marks on the top-dough circle, & the finishing 
> bottom scalloped shape sealing, (this joins the 2 layers of the Pithivier.)  
> I would really appreciate your direction.  Thank you, Barb    

Hi Barb,

Below are two pithivier recipes with almond cream, and here are links to instructions for making puff pastry:

Puff Pastry 1

Puff Pastry 2

Puff Pastry 3

Puff Pastry 4



Frangipane (almond cream filling)
6 ounces whole almonds
1 cup sugar
4 eggs
1 1/2 teaspoons almond extract
4 ounces unsalted butter, cut in small pieces
1/2 cup all-purpose flour

1 1/2 packages puff pastry dough
1 recipe frangipane cq (almond cream filling)
Egg wash (1 egg mixed with 1 tablespoon water)
Confectioners' sugar to taste

To prepare frangipane: Combine almonds and sugar in a food processor fitted
with a metal blade. Pulse until finely ground. Add 2 eggs and continue to
pulse until the mixture is smooth. Add almond extract.

Add butter and process until smooth and completely mixed in. Scrape down the
sides of the bowl. Add the remaining eggs and process until smooth.

Add the flour and pulse just until incorporated. Refrigerate for 2 hours.

To prepare pithivier: Roll out the puff pastry and cut into 2 circles, about
8 inches each. Roll one of the circles slightly larger than the other.

Mound the frangipane onto the center of the smaller circle, leaving about a
2-inch border around the edge. Lightly brush the border with egg wash.

Cover with the larger circle of pastry, pressing the edges together. Lightly
brush with egg wash. Starting at the top center with a small knife, make a
decorative top by lightly marking the pastry with half-moon shapes. Be
careful not to cut through the pastry.

Let sit for 20 minutes. Bake at 425 degrees for about 35 minutes. Remove
from oven and lightly dust with confectioners' sugar. Bake an additional 10
to 15 minutes until caramelized. Serve warm.

Makes 8 servings.

Approximate values per serving: 694 calories, 42 g fat, 196 mg cholesterol,
11 g protein, 69 g carbohydrates, 1 g fiber, 174 mg sodium, 54 percent
calories from fat.

Almond Cream:
4 ounces blanched almonds
4 ounces sugar
1 1/2 tablespoons flour
4 ounces unsalted butter
2 eggs
1 tablespoon almond essence or almond extract
1 pound puff pastry
1 egg beaten with 1 tablespoon water, for egg wash

To prepare the Almond Cream: in a food processor, combine the almonds,
sugar, and flour. Process to a mealy consistency. Add the butter, a piece at
a time. Add the eggs, one at a time. Continue to process until smooth.
Refrigerate at least 1 hour before use.
Roll out the puff pastry to about 1/8-inch thickness. Cut one 10-inch circle
and one 11-inch circle. Place the smaller circle on a parchment lined baking
sheet. Brush the edge with egg wash. Spread the almond cream in the center,
leaving the outer 2 inches of the circle clean. Cover with the larger circle
and lightly press down the edges. Brush the top with egg wash. Refrigerate
at least 30 minutes before decorating.

Preheat the oven to 375 degrees F.

Using the dull edge of a paring knife, press it against the sides of the
Pithivier to seal. Decorate the top by lightly cutting from the center
moving towards the edge in half circles, leaving about 1/2-inch spaces
between the cuts. Put a couple of vents and place in a parchment lined
baking sheet. Bake for 40 minutes or until puff pastry is baked. Serve warm.

Slum Gullion

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Jon" 
To: phaedrus
Sent: Saturday, March 20, 2004 12:58 AM
Subject: Irish Soup?

> When I was growing up, mother used to make a dish we called Slum Gullion (?)
> Mother said she had gotten it from my father's mother. No one I knew outside
> our family had ever heard of it. Then one day I was watching some 30's movie
> about a tramp that moves into the homes of rich folk in NYC when they go south
> for the winter. The other characters wind up there too, including an older
> couple who've been divorced for sometime and who actually own the mansion.They
> are "reunited" when she makes Slum Gullion, just as she did when they were
> young and he was working to make his fortune.
> Well, the characters and the action of the preparation of this, I guess it
> would be more like soup than stew, fit what I remembered mother fixing.
> I'd like to make it but don't have a recipe. About all I remember is that it
> had some meat (mother used ground meat), rice and celery. It could be that we
> ladeled the soup over the rice or it could have been in there all along. That
> part of the memory is cloudy.
> Can you help revive this old experience?
> Thanks,
> John

Hello John,

"Slum gullion" or "slumgullion" or just "slum", is a term from the California gold rush. It meant the mud left in the sluice when panning for gold, and the miners also used it to refer to a thin, watery stew or soup made from leftovers. The term first appeared in print in 1850. Every recipe for slumgullion that I found had different ingredients, which is logical since it was originally made from leftovers. See below for some recipes.


Slumgullion  Stew

 1 lb. lean hamburger or chicken or sm. beef cubes
1 (2 oz.) can tomato sauce
1 pkg. boil in bag rice
8 oz. frozen mixed vegetables

Boil rice as per instructions on package.  Fry hamburger until well done, 
drain completely.  Add rice, tomato sauce and mixed vegetables.  Simmer 
and stir until hot. Season to taste.

2 lbs. ground beef
1 lg. onion, chopped
1 lg. green pepper, chopped
Garlic to taste
1 1/2 c. Minute Rice (prepare as directed on box)
1 can sauerkraut, drained

Fry beef, onion, pepper and garlic until tender.  Drain excess fat, add 
sauerkraut.  When sauerkraut is heated add in the prepared rice, ready to eat. 
Slum  Gullion

5 pork chops
5 lg. onions
3 green peppers
1 can tomatoes
3 garlic cloves
1/3 lb. rice

Brown chops and salt and pepper.  Add diced onions and green peppers, tomatoes 
and juice to cover and simmer for one hour.  Add rice and simmer for 45 minutes. 
Remove garlic cloves. 
Slum  Gullion

 Ingredients :
 1 lb. ground beef
 1 can mushroom soup
 1 1/2 c. celery, chopped
 1 onion
 Salt & pepper to taste

 Preparation :
   Brown celery and onion in butter.  Add the ground beef along with
 salt and pepper and brown meat.  Pour the mushroom soup and 1 can
 water into meat and bring to a simmer.  Pour over hot biscuits or
 rice and serve.
 Slum  Gullion

 Ingredients :
 Green peppers

 Preparation :
    Begin by browning the onions slightly in a pan with your choice
 of oil.  Add chopped green peppers, tomatoes to the mixture with
 browned hamburger. Serve over rice.
 Slum  Gullion

 Ingredients :
 1 sm. box spaghetti
 1 1/2 lbs. ground chuck
 1 c. celery, chopped
 1 lg. onion, chopped
 Salt and pepper
 1 can tomatoes
 1 sm. can pork & beans
 1/4 c. soy sauce
 5 tsp. sugar

 Preparation :
    Cook spaghetti.  While this is cooking, saute meat, salt, pepper,
 onion, and celery.  In a large bowl, place tomatoes with juice and
 pork & beans.  Once spaghetti is drained, toss in bowl along with
 the meat mixture, soy sauce, and sugar.
 Slum  Gullion

 Ingredients :
 1 pkg. wide egg noodles
 1 lb. ground beef
 1 bell pepper
 1 onion 
 Parsley flakes
 1 c. stewed tomatoes
 2 c. tomato sauce

 Preparation :
     Cook noodles as directed on bag.  Brown ground beef, bell
 pepper, onion and spices.  Simmer tomato sauce and stewed tomatoes
 with ground beef for 15 minutes, add to noodles.


----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Peg" 
To: phaerus
Sent: Saturday, March 20, 2004 2:17 PM
Subject: Greek Cookie Recipe


     I am looking for a recipe for a cookie I had while visiting Greece.  It
was in a bakery in a little town called Marco Polo.  It is a very dark
cookie and is twisted into a rope shape or pretzel shape.  It is spicy.
Cloves and cinnamon and what the Greek call petimezi (wine must syrup).  If
you could find this recipe for me I would appreciate it very much.  Thanks.

Hello Peg,

I think you mean moustokouloura or wine must cookies. See below for two versions.


Moustokouloura Wine Must Cookies


(24 servings)

3 1/2 c All-purpose flour plus extra for kneading
2 ts Baking soda
1 tb Freshly ground cinnamon
1 tb Freshly ground cloves
1/4 c Mild olive oil
2 tb Honey
1/2 c Petimezi (Greek wine must syrup) OR- Italian vino cotto OR- Honey
1/2 Orange; (grated zest)
1 c Orange juice


Sift together the flour, baking soda, cinnamon, and cloves into a large
bowl, making a well in the center. In a smaller bowl, beat the olive oil
with the honey, petimezi, grated orange zest, and 1/2 the orange juice and
pour into the well. Mix together to make a dough, adding the remaining
orange juice as necessary.
Turn onto a floured surface and knead for about 10 minutes until the dough
is smooth but not stiff. Cover with a cloth and leave to relax for 30
minutes or longer.
Break off pieces of dough, about 2 tablespoonfuls each, and roll into snakes
about 1/2-inch in diameter. Press the two ends together, forming oval
wreaths, and place on an oiled or non-stick baking sheet. Bake in an oven
preheated to 375 F for 10-15 minutes- until they are brown and crunchy, but
not too hard.
Wine must cookies - sweets

4 1/2 cups flour
1/2 cup olive oil
1/4 cup petimezi (grape syrup)
2/3 coffee cup honey
1 1/2 teaspoons ammonia
3 tablespoons brandy
2/3 cup boiling water
cinnamon cloves

In a large bowl, sift the flower, the ammonia and the cinnamon cloves. Mix
and add the boiling water, the honey and the brandy. Stir until the mixture
has dissolved. Slowly add the flour, mixing continuously. Knead the dough
well. If the dough is too dry, add a little petimezi that has been mixed
with boiling water. Shape the dough into cookies, put them on a lightly
greased cookie sheet and bake in a pre-heated 350 F oven for about 20

Davy Jones' Locker

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Ann" 
To: phaedrus
Sent: Wednesday, March 17, 2004 7:26 PM
Subject: Origins of phrase "Davey Jones' locker"

> Dear Phaedrus,
> First let me just say that I absolutely love your website. I can't wait to
check it every morning to see what new tidbit of information might be there.
> My question to you is about an old saying. What are the origins of "Davey
Jones' locker"? Why is it that pirates (at least in movies my hubby and I
have watched) always say something to the effect of sending someone down to
it? I would appreciate anything you could tell me about this.
> Thanks,
> Ann

Hi Ann,

"Davey Jones' Locker" is a sailor's term that's been around for at least a couple of hundred years. It basically just means "the bottom of the ocean"

There doesn't seem to be any definitive answer regarding the origin of the term. "Davey Jones" himself is supposed to be a sort of demon of the sea who makes his home on the bottom.

It's thought that there may have been a real "Davey Jones." It's speculated that he may have been a pirate who made his captives walk the plank. Another old story says that he was a tavern owner who would shanghai drunks as crew for departing vessels.

Some scholars say that "Davey" is a corruption of "duffy", a West Indies term for a ghost or demon and that "Jones" is a corruption of "Jonah" from the Bible.

The earliest known written reference is from Tobias Smollett, who wrote in "The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle" in 1751 that:

"This same Davy Jones, according to the mythology of sailors, is the fiend that presides over all the evil spirits of the deep, and is often seen in various shapes, perching among the rigging on the eve of hurricanes, ship-wrecks, and other disasters to which sea-faring life is exposed, warning the devoted wretch of death and woe".



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