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Airport Codes

----- Original Message ----- 
From: Sharon
To: phaedrus
Sent: Tuesday, April 20, 2004 12:20 PM

> Hi, Could you tell me how the letters for airports were decided on such
> as for Los Angeles airport, which is LAX as there is no x in Los Angeles.
> Some i figure out on my own but this one makes no sense at all.
> On our luggage the tags have abbreviation for each change over.
> Thanks a lots Sharon

Hi Sharon,

In the early days of flight, there were no airports. Planes landed in the nearest meadow or pasture. By the 1930's, however, air service had become centered around cities with designated airports. Radio operators needed codes for the various airports, so they began using the two letter codes that the National Weather Service was already using for cities with weather stations. For Los Angeles. the weather service used LA. As time went by, and more cities had airports, the two letters were not enough, so they went to a three letter code. To make it easy, airports that already had two letter codes just put an "X" on the end. So, LA became "LAX". As more airports were built around the world, they began to get creative in choosing the 3 letters for their code.

That's the basic story. For more on it, go to:


Chicken Scallopini

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Sharon"
To: phaedrus
Sent: Tuesday, April 20, 2004 11:03 AM
Subject: Johnny Carino's Bowtie Festival

> Hi,
> I am dying to know how they make their bowtie festival.  It is a bowtie
> pasta with chicken, bacon and other wonderful flavors can you provide me
> the recipe?  Also if I could my husband loves their chicken scaloppini dish,
> can I have that recipe as well?
> Sharon 

Hi Sharon,

See below.


See also: Asiago Sun-Dried Tomato Pasta

2013 Update: Found the reci[pes below on a message board.

Chicken Scaloppini Like Johnny Carino's

Build For The Lemon Butter
1 Lb. Margarine
2 Lb. Butter
1/4 Cup Lemon Juice
1/2 Cup White Wine
2 Tsp. Chopped Garlic

Combine these 5 items into a mixing bowl and beat at a medium speed until a smooth consistency in the batter is formed. 
Once combined, keep refrigerated until needed.

Build For The Chicken Scaloppini

1 Oz. Melted Butter
3 Precooked Breaded Chicken Medallions
1/4 Cup Roma Tomatoes
1/2 Cup Sliced Mushrooms
1/4 Cup Chopped Bacon
1/2 Tsp. Salt, Pepper, Garlic Salt
5 Oz. Precooked Spaghetti
4 Oz. Heavy Whipping Cream
1/2 Cup Lemon Butter

Into a warm saute pan, combine melted butter, chicken medallions, tomatoes, mushrooms, bacon, and spice mixture. 
Saute until chicken begins to brown and tomatoes begin to dissolve. Add heavy cream and allow to boil to the middle of pan. 
Remove from fire, add lemon butter, and fold together to make sauce. Serve over spaghetti.
Bowtie Festival Like Johnny Carino's Italian Restaurant

Build For Alfredo Sauce
1 Quart Heavy Whipping Cream
1 Cup Parmesan Cheese
1 Tbsp. Black Pepper
1/4 Cup Whole Milk

Saute heavy cream, milk, and black pepper to a consistent boil. Remove cream mixture from heat and fold in parmesan cheese. 
Store completed sauce in refrigerator until use.

Build For The Bowtie Festival

1 Oz. Melted Butter
1 Tsp. Chopped Fresh Garlic
1/8 Cup Diced Red Onion
1/8 Cup Diced Cooked Bacon
1/4 Cup Diced Roma Tomatoes
3 Oz. Sliced Cooked Chicken
1 Oz. Heavy Cream
3 Oz. Alfredo Sauce
1/8 Cup Asiago Cheese
1/2 Tsp. Salt, Pepper, Garlic Salt
10 Oz. Pre Cooked Bowtie Pasta

In a heated saute pan combine butter, garlic, onions, bacon, taomatoes, chicken, and spice mixture. 
When onions begin to turn translucent, add heavy cream and asiago cheese. Once cheese and cream have 
reduced by half, add alfredo sauce and bowtie pasta. Toss until well combined and remove from fire. 
Allow to cool for a few minutes so the cheese and sauce thicken.
chicken scallopine

2 1/2 lbs Chicken Breasts (pounded thin)
2 oz. Olive Oil
8 oz. sliced mushrooms
2 lemons (halved)
4 oz. heavy whipping cream
4 artichokes
4 tsp. parsley
12 oz. lemon sauce
20 oz. Angel Hair pasta (this is a lot of pasta. Recipe should be reduced)
8 Tbsp. fried Pancetta
4 Tbsp Friend Capers

Lemon Sauce
1 Tbsp. Fresh Lemon Juice
1 qt. Chablis
3 tsp. butter
1 qt. Whipping creme
1 Tbsp. thyme
1 tsp. salt
1 tsp. pepper

Chicken: Heat saute pan over medium heat. Add oil and heat. Add chicken
pieces to saute pan and saute on each side for one minute (or until no
longer pink). Add sliced mushrooms to saute
pan and saute with chicken for an additional minute. When mushrooms are
cooked, squeeze juice from lemons into saute pan and coat the chicken with
juice (ensure there are no seeds). Add cream to pan and stir to incorporate.
Add lemon sauce and stir to incorporate. DO NOT RETURN TO HEAT/FLAME!

Lemon Sauce:
Boil Chablis to reduce to 2 cups. Add lemon juice and butter and melt
slowly. Add whipping cream and simmer on low heat until thickened. Add
spices and cool to room temp. In large bowl, twirl pasta into a nest.
Sprinkle chicken pieces against pasta and pour remaining contents of pan on
and around chicken. Sprinkle pancetta and capers over entire dish. Garnish
with chopped parsley.

Molho de Figado

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Mary Ann" 
To: phaedrus
Sent: Wednesday, April 21, 2004 11:01 AM
Subject: recipe search

> Hi,
> I'm trying to find a recipe/directions for a pork dish. It's of Portuguese
origins (actually probably  Azorean) and is called molho de figado. It's
made with marinated pork including spareribs as an option and pork liver is
added when it is cooking, hence the name. I think it loosely translates to
liver gravy/sauce. I have checked several Portuguese cookbooks to no avail.
Thanks for your help. Mary Ann

Hi Mary Ann,

Well, I had mixed results. You can buy it here:

Portuguese Food

The only recipe that I could find was in Portuguese. See below.


2013 Update: See here: Our Blog of Recipes

Torresmos de Molho de Fígado


2 kg de carne de porco (a carne da ponta do entrecosto, entrecosto com ou
sem ossos, as pontas feias e mais gordas do lombo e quadrados de toucinho
entremeado da barriga) ;
750 g de fígado de porco ;
8 dentes de alho ;
pimenta vermelha (picante ou não) ;
sal grosso ;
1 dl de vinagre ;
5 dl de vinho branco ;
meia folha de louro ;
pimenta preta em grão (1 colher de chá) ;
6 cravinhos-da-índia

Corta-se a carne aos bocados grandes (as mais gordas em bocados mais
pequenos). Pisam-se os dentes de alho com sal e a pimenta vermelha e
mistura-se depois o vinagre e o vinho branco. Com esta papa (vinha-d´alhos)
temperam-se as carnes, ficando assim até ao dia seguinte.
O fígado é cortado em fatias grossas e tempera-se à parte com um pouco de
sal, vinho branco e um pouco de pimenta e mistura-se à mão.
No dia seguinte deita-se no fundo da panela o louro, a pimenta em grão e o
cravinho e por cima põem-se as carnes mais gordas. Quando estas carnes
começarem a ferver, juntam-se as restantes (excepto o fígado), mexendo
sempre até os torresmos começarem a querer rosar (alourar). Junta-se então o
fígado e o respectivo tempero. Ferve tudo lentamente até o fígado cozer,
mexendo de vez em quando. Estando o fígado completamente cozido,
desengordura-se um pouco e servem-se os torresmos bem quentes. Guarda-se o
restante coberto com a gordura.

Descrevemos a versão da receita de torresmos de molho de fígado que se usa
na ilha de S. Miguel.

Este prato faz parte das matanças. Faz-se e come-se no dia da desmancha do
porco. O que sobre guarda-se, podendo conservar-se um ano coberto de banha.
É sempre servido quente.


----- Original Message ----- 
From: "lisa" 
To: phaedrus
Sent: Sunday, April 18, 2004 6:54 PM
Subject: minestrone

> Dear Uncle,
> I just returned from Las Vegas. While I was there I had a bowl of
minestrone at Il Fornaio in New York New York.  I've never had minestrone
like this one.  It wasn't a tomato base.  It had a lot of veggies, cabbage,
zucchini, yellow squash, carrot, cauliflower and a bit of tomato in chunk,
but it was a clear broth.  Have you ever heard of this?  Do you have a
recipe?  I'd love to reproduce it, it was simply delicious.
> Thanks,
> Lisa 

Hi Lisa,

The Il Fornaio menu calls this "Minestrone Di Verdure", which just means "with vegetables." I could not find the Il Fornaio recipe or a copycat. Most of the recipes that I found with that name had lots of tomatoes. There are some minestrones that have no tomato, particularly Tuscan ones. See below for several recipes. Best I can do since I can't find the Il Fornaio one.


Tuscan Minestrone Soup
Yield: 4 Servings


      2 tb olive oil
      1 c  carrots; sliced
      1 c  onions; chopped
    1/2 c  celery; chopped
      2 cl garlic; minced
      1    15 oz. can cannellini beans;
           - drained, rinsed
      1    15 oz. can black beans;
           -drained, rinsed
14 1/2 oz chicken broth
    1/2 ts dried thyme


In 5-quart Dutch oven, heat oil over medium-high heat until hot.
Add carrot, onions, celery, and garlic, cook 4 to 5 minutes or until
onions are tender, stirring occasionally. Stir in all remaining
ingredients. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat to medium; simmer 10-to 12
Tuscan Minestrone

Recipe By     :
Serving Size  : 10   Preparation Time :0:00
Categories    : Soups

  Amount  Measure       Ingredient -- Preparation Method
--------  ------------  --------------------------------
   3                    Slices thin bacon -- diced
   1      tablespoon    Olive or salad oil
   1      large         Onion; peeled -- diced
   2                    Leeks; white parts only -- cleaned, scraped
   2                    Cloves garlic -- crushed
   1      large         Carrot; scraped -- diced
   2      cups          Green cabbage -- shredded
   2                    Zucchini; about 1/2 lb each -- washed, stemmed and
   1      can           (1 lb) white or kidney beans -- drained
   1      cup           Small pasta or spaghetti -- broken up
     1/2  cup           Grated Parmesan cheese

Combine bacon, oil, onion, leeks, and garlic in a large kettle. Cook over
low heat 5 minutes. Add carrot and cabbage; saute 5 minutes. Add zucchini, 
tomatoes, potatoes, water, salt, and pepper.  Bring to a boil. Lower heat 
and cook slowly, covered, 25 minutes.
Add beans and pasta and cook 15 minutes longer, until pasta is just tender
and vegetables are cooked. Serve in large soup bowls sprinkled with cheese.
Serves 10 to 12.
Minestrone Di Verdure
Minestrone of Vegetables

1 1/2 fresh fava beans
l 1/2 lbs. fresh, green peas, unpodded
2/3 lb. ripe tomatoes
2 lbs. white or golden onions
l 1/2 lbs. Zucchini
handful of basil leaves
2 tbs. minced parsley
1 head lettuce
1 1/2 qts. olive oil
1 qt. beef broth

Shell the fava beans and the green peas (keep them separate). Peel, seed and
chop the tomatoes. Slice the onions. Wash and slice the zucchini without
peeling them.
Clean, rinse and mince the basil and parsley. Place all the vegetables in a
pot in this order: first the tomatoes at the bottom of the pot, then the
onions on top, the zucchini over them, then the lettuce and the green peas;
finally, sprinkle with half the parsley and add the fava beans. Drizzle with

Cover the pot and cook over medium flame. Do not stir for about 10 mins.,
until the vegetables at the bottom of the pot release their water.

Add the beef broth, a pinch of salt and a pinch of pepper. Stir, cover the
pot and let cook on a very low flame for about an hour (do not add any water
while the minestrone is cooking.) When ready, add the rest of the parsley
and serve.

Neither rice nor pasta should be added to this minestrone.
Recipe - Piemontese Vegetable Soup
Piemontese Vegetable Soup
Minestrone di verdure alla Piemontese

1 Lb(s). Great Northern Beans, dried
1/4 Cup(s) oil
5 Slice(s) bacon, chopped
1 Large onion, chopped
2 Clove(s) garlic, chopped
4 Whole carrots, diced
6 Stalk(s) celery, diced
1 Can(s) 8 oz. plum tomatoes, diced with
1 Tbsp(s). chopped fresh basil
1 Tbsp(s). chopped fresh parsley
2 Cup(s) peeled and diced potatoes
4 Cup(s) medium zucchini, diced
1/2 Lb(s). fresh green beans, cut 1/2 pcs
1 Small Savoy cabbage, shredded
2 Qt(s). beef broth
1/2 Cup(s) grated Parmesan cheese
1/2 tsp(s). black pepper
salt to taste

Cover washed beans with water; soak overnight. In a small skillet, cook oil,
bacon, garlic and onion over medium heat for 10 minutes, stirring
occasionally. Drain beans and put into a large kettle; add bacon-onion
mixture, carrots, celery, tomatoes with juice, basil, parsley, potatoes,
zucchini, green beans, cabbage and broth; cover and simmer for 3 - 4 hours.
Before serving, stir in the cheese, pepper and salt

Mac 'N Cheese like Cracker Barrel

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Tori" 
To: phaedrus
Sent: Friday, April 16, 2004 8:10 PM
Subject: cracker barrel mac n cheese

I wrote several months ago about this recipe, and I had actually found one
posted that claimed to be it..I feel it has potential, but the ingredients
are not quite right..just wondering if you've come across this recipe? I
remember you saying it was very requested....wonder why it seems to be the
one cracker barrel recipe that can't be found online?


Hi Tori,

I can only find one copycat for this. It's probably the same one that you found. I don't know why someone hasn't put more effort into copying that one.


Cracker Barrel Mac & Cheese
Servings: 6

2 tablespoons flour
1 cup low sodium chicken broth
1/2 cup cream
2 1/2 cups shredded Colby cheese
2 1/2 cups uncooked pasta -- elbows, etc.
1 teaspoon salt

In a sauce pan melt butter over medium low heat then add the flour a little
bit at a time while whisking to make a roux. Heat the broth. Next add the
broth to the roux, stir with the whisk. This will thicken as it heats. Next
add a little cream watch for consistency.

Bring 4 cups water to a boil in a separate pot, add salt, and pasta.

In the other pot add shredded cheese a 1/4 of a cup at a time while stirring
with a spoon. When you have about one cup of cheese in you can add the rest
of the cheese.

Cook the pasta al dente. Strain and combine with the cheese sauce.

Pour the mix into a casserole and bake uncovered in a preheated oven set to
350°F for about 10 minutes. Keep an eye on the mac & cheese, you want it to
brown around the edges and in patches on top.

Remove and let stand for 10 minutes before serving. Enjoy!


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