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Converting Bread Recipes

  ----- Original Message ----- 
  From: lisa 
  Sent: Thursday, July 10, 2003 7:32 AM
  Subject: Do you think this would work?

  Dear Uncle Phaedrus,
  I have a bread machine.  It's the only way I can make bread.  Is there any difference between 
  a regular bread recipe and a bread machine one?  I was kind of thinking of a special occasion 
  loaf  with the usual stuff, flour,yeast,sugar  but with some add ons, like maybe orange juice 
  for water, maybe some cream cheese or sour cream and maybe a handful of cranberries thrown in.  
  Does this sound like it would work?
  Thanks, Lisa 

Hi Lisa,

Most bread recipes can be converted for use in a bread machine. Below are some guidelines.


1) Size is the first thing to look at. Most non-bread machine recipes make two loaves. A bread machine recipe is for one 1 lb loaf or one 1 1/2 lb loaf. So, if your recipe is for two loaves, you will need to halve it.
2) Amount of liquid, flour, and salt are the key ingredients. These must be in the right proportion. Never use more flour or liquid or salt than the most used in any recipe that came with your bread machine. Here are some measurement guidelines from "The Bread Machine Magic Book of Helpful Hints" by Linda Rehberg and Lois Conway:

1 lb loaf

7/8 to 1 cup liquid
2 to 2 2/3 cup flour (whole grain loaves take a little more flour and a little more liquid.)
1/4 to 1 teaspoon salt
2 teaspoons to 3 tablespoons fat
2 teaspoons to 3 tablespoons sweetener
1 1/2 to 3 teaspoons active dry yeast

1 1/2 lb loaf

1 1/8 to 1 1/4 cups liquid
3 to 4 cups flour (whole grain loaves take a little more flour and a little more liquid.)
1/2 to 1 1/2 teaspoons salt
1 to 4 tablespoons fat
1 to 4 tablespoons sweetener
1 1/2 to 3 teaspoons active dry yeast

3) If you add anything wet, like eggs or fruit or vegetables or sour cream or cottage cheese, you have to count that as part of the liquid and reduce the amount of water you add. Count 1 large egg as 1/4 cup liquid. Count anything else as 1/2 liquid. In other words, if you add 1 cup of cranberries, count it as 1/2 cup liquid. If you add 1/2 cup sour cream, count it as 1/4 cup liquid. An almost pure liquid, like orange juice, would count as all liquid, so 1 cup of OJ would count as 1 cup liquid.
4) The best way to create a recipe of your own is to start with the basic bread recipe that came with your machine, then add your extra ingredients to the recipe, making reductions where necessary. If the recipe calls for 1 cup water, and you add 1/2 cup cranberries, then you would only add 3/4 cup water, because the cranberries add 1/4 cup liquid.
5) The more extra ingredients that you add, the heavier the bread will be, and the longer it will take to rise.
6) Don't get upset if it doesn't work the first time. You have to get the feel of this. Be sure to write everything you do down. That way, if it works, then you have your recipe so you can make it again. If it doesn't work, you can go back over what you did and maybe see what you did wrong and what needs to be changed.
7) An excellent book on this subject is "The Bread Machine Magic Book of Helpful Hints" by Linda Rehberg and Lois Conway.

Homemade Popsicles

  ----- Original Message ----- 
  From: Pc 
  To: phaedrus
  Sent: Saturday, July 12, 2003 2:06 AM

  I wish my homemade popsicles could have the consistency of commercial Popsicles - kind of soft and 
  slushy  with the flavor & fruit solids distributed evenly throughout, rather than hard like an ice 
  cube and the flavor/fruit solids concentrated on the bottom.  I've read that "stabilizers", "emulsifiers" 
  and "preservatives" are what keep the product from separating and give it the slushy texture.  OK, so 
  what ARE these "stabilizers", "emulsifiers" and "preservatives"?  Do you know where I can find recipes 
  or formulas that will tell me what and how much to use to accomplish my mission?

  Thanks for any help you can give.


Hello PC,

What gives ice cream its creamy texture and keeps it from freezing into something that resembles an ice cube? It's the fat. Ice cream is made with cream and whole milk, which are full of milkfat. The fat forms an emulsion that prevents big ice crystals from forming and keeps the texture soft and creamy. So, what about ice milk, which contains much less fat? And sherbet, which contains even less? And sorbets and popsicles, which contain almost none?

Well, as you freeze products with less and less fat, you have to replace the fat with something else that will form an emuslsion and keep big ice crystals from forming. Commercial ice cream manufacturers use commercial stabilizers, which are sometimes made of exotic ingredients like "guar gum" or "gum arabic". They may also contains something as mundane as dried egg whites. Egg whites are an excellent stabilizer, and they're often added to even regular ice cream to make it even more creamy. Actually almost all commercial ice cream has at least some added stabilizer to make it creamier.

Yogurt also contains substances that act as stabilizers.

Gelatin is another excellent stabilizer. It's easy to see the stabilizing effects of gelatin: just make a bowl of jello with fruit in it. Now that's an emulsion!

One final stabilizer that is often used by vegetarians who do not wish to use gelatin because it contains animal protein, is a seaweed extract called "agar". Agar flakes can be purchased at health food stores.

So, the best way to "stabilize" your popsicles is to add gelatin or agar to them. Kool-aid and jello mixtures make great popsicles. See below. If you want to use your own recipe and just add the gelatin to it, you'll have to experiment until you find the right amount.


  Homemade Popsicles With Variations

  1 pkg. any flavor Kool-Aid
  1 pkg. Jell-O (same flavor)
  1 1/4 C. sugar
  3/4 C. hot water
  3/4 C. cold water

  Mix dry ingredients together. Measure approximately 6 tablespoons dry ingredients into a mixing bowl - 
  add hot water and cold water. Pour into Popsicle moulds and freeze.

  Remaining dry ingredients may be stored in airtight container to make more Popsicles at a later date.

  Popsicle Variations

  Dripless Popsicles
  In large mix and store bowl combine: 1 package Jell-O, 1 package Kool-aid, 1 cup sugar, 2 cups hot water. 
  Add 2 cups cold water. Mix well, pour into popsicle containers and freeze. Makes 20 Popsicles.

  In large mix and store bowl combine: 1 package butterscotch instant pudding, 1 cup root beer. Add 1 1/2 
  cups water. Mix well, pour into Popsicle containers and freeze.

  Jell-O Popsicles
  In large mix and store bowl combine, 1 package Jell-O, 1 cup hot water. Add 1 1/2 cups water mix well, 
  pour into Popsicle containers and freeze.

  Lemon Popsicles
  In large mix and store bowl, combine 1 package lemon instant pudding, 1 cup hot water. Add, 1 1/2 cups 
  cold water. Mix well, pour into popsicle containers and freeze.

  In large mix and store bowl, combine 1 package instant chocolate pudding, 1/2 cup sugar, 1/2 cup cream, 
  2 cups milk. Mix well, pour into popsicle containers and freeze.

  In large mix and store bowl, combine 2 cups fresh or frozen strawberries, 8 ounces plain yogurt, 1/2 cup 
  sugar. Mix well, pour into popsicle containers and freeze.

  In large mix and store bowl, combine 2 cups plain yogurt, 6 ounce can frozen orange juice, 2 teaspoons 
  vanilla. Mix well, pour into popsicle containers and freeze. 

Dreamsicle Pops

  ----- Original Message ----- 
  From: Elizabeth 
  To: phaedrus 
  Sent: Wednesday, July 09, 2003 8:48 PM
  Subject: Dreamsicle pops

My Mother had a recipe for Dreamsicle pops like you buy at the store in the icee cream section. 
She made it with orange kool aid and milk, that is all I can remember. Do you by chance know what 
I am talking about? I would love to have the recipe so I can make some for my grandkids. If you have 
it or knw where I can get it, will you please post it on your site. 

By the way, I love the ideal of you having this site, it is very handy and helpful.
Thanks so much,

Hello Elizabeth,

I could not locate a recipe for Dreamsicles that used orange kool-aid. Below are the ones that I did find.



You will need:

orange juice 
frozen vanilla yogurt 


1. Wash your hands 
2. Add 1 cup of frozen yogurt to the blender. 
3. Put 2 cups of orange juice in the blender. 
4. Blend 15 seconds or until smooth. 

Pour into paper cups. Insert a popsicle stick in each cup and freeze to make a frozen dreamsicle.

1 small box orange or cherry gelatin
1 pint hot water
1 pint vanilla ice cream, softened
Dissolve gelatin in 1 cup hot water in a medium-size bowl. Add ice cream. Pour into molds and freeze. Makes 12.

Full Recipe:                                
4 Cups sugar        
1/2 Quarts Milk        
1/2 Quarts half-and-half        
1/4 Cups Madagascar vanilla        
2 tbsp vanilla
12 egg yolks [1 cup]        
1 Cup chocolate chips        
1 Cup orange juice concentrate        

1. Boil sugar, milk and half-and-half together. Slowly add vanilla.
2. Beat egg yolks in a separate bowl. Slowly add mixture from above to temper the eggs.
3. Pour new mixture back into hot pot. Mix for a few minutes to solidify and form a custard.
4. Place chocolate chips in a separate bowl. Add half of the custard mixture. Mix.
5. With the remaining custard mix add orange juice concentrate. Mix together and cool. 
6. Pour orange custard mix 3/4 up into popsicle molds. Top remaining mold with chocolate mixture.
7. Place popsicle sticks into each of the molds. Freeze for two hours.
8. Dip molds into room temperature water to loosen. Enjoy!
California Dreamsicles 

3 cups orange juice 
5 ounces evaporated milk 
1/2 cup sugar 
1 tablespoon vanilla extract 
5 drops red food color  -- (optional) 

Place all the ingredients in a blender and blend well or place in a large bowl and beat well with 
an electric beater, until the sugar has completely dissolved. Pour into popsicle molds and freeze 
until solid. 

NOTE: Don't lose your cool if you don't have popsicle molds: You can use just about any freezer-safe 
container to make homemade frozen treats. Try using small plastic cups and non-toxic wooden craft 
sticks or even plastic spoons for your handles. The cups are perfect for catching drips or for 
"keeping the rest for later". 

Sour Cream & Onion Squares

  ----- Original Message ----- 
  From: Liz 
  To: phaedrus
  Sent: Monday, August 11, 2003 12:34 AM
  Subject: sour cream and onion squares

  Good evening:

  Well, here I am again with yet another recipe question.  Tonight I was out for dinner with some 
  friends and we had the greatest appetizer which was on the menu as sour cream and onion squares; 
  naturally, the café would not devulge their secret.  Have you ever heard of such a recipe and if 
  so could you send it to me.  All I can tell you is that it might have had bisquick in it I'm not 
  sure.  Thanks a bunch!

  Sincerely, Liz 

Hi Liz,

I could not locate anything with the name "sour cream and onion squares". However, I did locate recipes for "onion squares" and they had onions, sour cream and biscuit mix as ingredients. See below.


  Onion Squares

  1 egg, well beaten 
  1/4 cup milk 
  2 cups biscuit mix 
  2 tablespoons fresh chopped parsley 
  2 cups chopped sweet onion, about 2 large sweet onions 
  2 tablespoons butter 
  1 egg 
  3/4 cup sour cream 
  1/2 teaspoon salt 
  1/4 teaspoon pepper 
  Blend egg and milk with biscuit mix and chopped parsley. Turn dough mixture into greased 
  9-inch square pan. Sauté onions in butter until tender and lightly browned. Spread onions 
  on dough in baking pan. Whisk egg with sour cream; season with salt and pepper then spread 
  over onions. Bake onion squares at 400° for 25 minutes. Cut into squares, sprinkle with a 
  little paprika, and serve hot. Onion squares recipe serves 6. 
  Onion Bread Squares
   Recipe By     :
   Serving Size  : 12   Preparation Time :0:00
   Categories    : Appetizers                       
     Amount  Measure       Ingredient -- Preparation Method
   --------  ------------  --------------------------------
      3      cups          diced onions
        1/2  cup           diced green bell pepper
      2      tablespoons   butter
      2                    eggs
        3/4  cup           milk
      2      cups          biscuit baking mix
        3/4  cup           sour cream
                           salt and freshly ground pepper
        Sauté onions and green pepper in butter until tender. Add 1 egg and
   milk to biscuit mix, mix well. Turn into greased 9" by 9" pan. Spread onions
   and peppers over dough. Beat remaining egg with sour cream, salt, and
   pepper. Pour over onions. Bake at 400° for 25 minutes. Cut into squares and
   serve warm.
  Crispy Onion Squares

  1 1/2 cups minced onion
  2 tablespoons melted butter
  1 egg, slightly beaten
  3/4 cup dairy sour cream
  1/4 teaspoon salt
  Dash of pepper
  1 cup milk (about)
  3 cups packaged biscuit mix
  1 cup crushed potato chips

  Heat oven to 350 degrees F. Grease a 9-by-9-by-2-inch pan. SautÈ onion in butter or 
  margarine about 5 minutes, or until golden; remove from heat.

  Combine egg and sour cream in small bowl; mix well. Stir in sautÈed onion, salt and pepper. 
  Add milk to biscuit mix in large bowl, stirring with fork until dough is formed.

  Pat dough into pan; spread sour cream mixture over top; sprinkle with potato chips. 
  Bake about 30 minutes, or until dough tests done. Cut into squares and serve hot. 
  Makes 9 servings.

Chicken Wellington

  ----- Original Message ----- 
  From: traci 
  To: phaedrus
  Sent: Thursday, July 10, 2003 6:30 PM

  recipe for chicken wellington and sauce

Hello Tracy,

See below. There seem to be several different sauces used with this dish.


  Chicken  Breasts  Wellington

   Ingredients : 
   1/2 c. butter, softened
   1/2 (8 oz.) cream cheese, softened
   1 c. flour
   4 chicken breasts
   2 tbsp. butter, melted
   1/4 c. chicken broth
   1/4 c. water
   1 lg. carrot, sliced
   3/4 c. sliced fresh mushrooms
   1 tbsp. butter, melted
   1 tsp. water

   Preparation : 
      Combine 1/2 cup butter and cream cheese; mix well.  Add flour;
   stir with a fork until all dry ingredients are moistened.  Remove 1
   inch ball of dough; divide remaining dough into 4 portions.  Chill 1
   hour.  Saute chicken in 2 tablespoons butter for 2 minutes on each
   side.  Remove from pan.  Sprinkle with salt and pepper.  Combine
   chicken broth, 1/4 cup water, and carrots in small saucepan; bring
   to a boil.  Cover; reduce heat and simmer 8 to 10 minutes.  Drain
   and set aside.  Saute mushrooms.  Roll out 4 large portions of
   pastry on lightly floured surface.  On each pastry, arrange carrots,
   mushrooms, and 1 chicken piece.  Fold edges over.  Seal with water. 
   Decorate each piece with dough from 1 inch ball. Usually X on top. 
   Bake at 425 degrees for 15 to 18 minutes.
  Chicken  Breast  Wellington

   Ingredients : 
   1/2 c. butter
   1/2 (8 oz.) pkg. cream cheese
   1 c. all-purpose flour
   4 chicken breast halves, skinned and boned
   2 tbsp. butter
   1/4 c. chicken broth
   1/4 c. water
   1 lg. carrot, scraped and cut into 1/4-inch slices
   3/4 c. sliced mushrooms
   1 tbsp. butter or margarine
   1 egg
   1 tsp. water
   Veloute sauce
  Veloute Sauce:
   3/4 can chicken broth
   3/4 c. water
   3 tbsp. butter
   3 tbsp. flour
   1/4 tsp. salt
   1/8 tsp. pepper

   Preparation : 
      Combine 1/2 cup butter and cream cheese; mix well.  Add flour;
   stir with a fork until all dry ingredients are moistened.  Remove a
   1-inch ball of dough; divide remaining dough into 4 portions; chill
   1 hour.  Saute chicken in 2 tablespoons butter for 2 minutes on each
   side.  Remove from pan.  Sprinkle lightly with salt and pepper; set
   aside.  Combine chicken broth, water, and carrot in a small
   saucepan.  Bring to a boil; cover.  Reduce heat and simmer 8-10
   minutes or until crisp and tender; set aside.  Combine chicken broth
   and water and set aside.  Melt butter in a heavy saucepan over low
   heat; add flour, stirring until smooth.  Cook, stirring constantly
   until lightly browned.  Gradually add broth; cook over medium heat,
   stirring steady until thick.  Stir in salt and pepper and cook over
   medium heat until mixture is reduced to 1 1/4 cups.  Yield 1 1/4
   cup.  Roll out the 4 large portions of pastry on a lightly floured
   surface into 1/8- inch thick circles.  On each, arrange 1/4 of the
   carrot slices, 1/4 of the mushrooms, and 1 piece of chicken.  Fold
   over 2 remaining opposite edges. Invert and transfer to an ungreased
   baking sheet.  Roll out 1-inch ball of pastry to 1/8-inch thickness;
   cut into 8 thin strips. Place 2 strips on top of each Wellington,
   forming a letter X.  Beat together egg and water; brush tops with
   egg mixture.  Prick several times with a fork.  Bake at 425 degrees
   for 15-18 minutes or until golden.  Serve with Veloute sauce.
    Chicken  Breast  Wellington

   Ingredients : 
   8 whole chicken breasts, boned, skinned & split
   16 frozen puff pastry shells or Pepperidge Farm frozen pastry shells, thawed
   Dijon mustard
   16 slices Swiss cheese
   16 slices cooked ham
   Mushroom Sauce:
   2 cans cream of mushroom soup
   1 pt. sour cream
   Sliced fresh mushrooms

   Preparation : 
      Poach chicken in slightly salted water for 30 minutes.  Drain and
   cool slightly.  Roll out shell into a 6 inch square.  Spread mustard
   on each square; top each with a piece of chicken, cheese, and ham. 
   Wrap patty shell around chicken-ham- cheese combination; place on
   baking sheet and bake at 400 degrees for 30 to 40 minutes.  Serve
   with mushroom sauce.  Sauce:  Mix soup, sour cream, and precooked
   mushrooms.  Heat thoroughly and serve.  Serves 16.
   Chicken  Breasts  Wellington

   Ingredients : 
   8 whole boneless chicken breasts (about 12 oz. each)
   Salt and pepper
   1/2 c. dry white wine
   2 tbsp. vegetable oil
   1/2 lb. fresh mushrooms, very finely chopped
   4 green onions, sliced
   1/4 c. (1/2 stick) butter or margarine
   1 tsp. salt
   2 pkgs. (17 1/4 oz. each) frozen puff pastry
   1 egg, beaten
   Bearnaise Sauce (recipe follows)
  Bearnaise Sauce:
   1/2 c. dry vermouth or white wine
   2 green onions, sliced (the white part only)
   1 tsp. leaf tarragon
   1 tsp. leaf chervil (optional)
   8 egg yolks
   2 tbsp. cold water
   1 c. (2 sticks) butter or margarine, softened
   1/2 tsp. salt
   1/4 tsp. white pepper

   Preparation : 
   1.  Remove skin from chicken breasts and press chicken into a
   neat shape; season with salt and pepper. Arrange chicken
   breasts in a 15x10x1 inch jelly roll pan; add wine and oil to
   pan. Cover pan tightly with heavy duty aluminum foil.  
   2.  Bake in moderate oven (350 degrees) 20 minutes, or until breasts 
   are firm; spoon pan liquid into a cup and allow chicken breasts to
   3.  Saute chopped mushrooms and green onion in butter or
   margarine until soft in a large skillet; season with the 1
   teaspoon salt and add enough of the chicken pan liquid to make a
   spreadable mixture (about 3 tablespoons).  Cool mushroom mixture.  
   4.  Thaw frozen puff pastry, one box at a time, following
   label directions. Separate each package into the 2 strips. Cut
   each strip in half lengthwise, and roll out to a 10x15 inch
   rectangle on a lightly floured board.  
   5.  Coat the outside of a cooled chicken breast with 1/8th of 
   the cooled mushroom mixture and place on half of rolled out pastry; 
   fold other half of pastry over; trim and seal with a two tined fork; 
   brush well with a mixture of beaten egg and 1 tablespoon cold water.  
   6.  When all chicken breasts are pastry wrapped, take pastry trims 
   and roll into thin ropes and shape a bowl for each chicken bundle, 
   then add additional strips to sides.  Brush trims with egg mixture. 
   Place on large cookie sheet.  
   7.  Bake in moderate oven (375 degrees) 40 minutes, or until pastry 
   is golden. Arrange on 2 serving platters and garnish with lemon slices 
   and parsley, if you wish. 
   Serve with Bearnaise Sauce:  
   1.  Combine vermouth or wine, white part of green onion, tarragon and 
   chervil, if used, in a small saucepan.  Bring to boiling; lower heat and 
   allow to bubble until liquid is reduced by half.  Strain with a fine 
   strainer or through cheesecloth into a cup; cool.  
   2.  Beat egg yolks until thick and lemon colored with electric mixer on 
   high speed in top of double boiler; beat in water and place over simmering, 
   not boiling, water.  Heat, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon 4 to 5 
   minutes, or until warm.
   Chicken  Wellington

   Ingredients : 
   4 chicken breasts, boned and halved
   1 pkg. Uncle Ben's Wild Rice Mix
   1 pkg. Pillsbury crescent rolls
   1 egg, separated
  --Currant Sauce:--
  1 jar red currant jelly
   1 tsp. worcestershire sauce
   1 tsp. lemon juice
   Dash tabasco
   1 tsp. dry mustard

   Preparation : 
     Cook rice by package directions.  Beat egg white and add to rice. 
   Spoon rice onto chicken half.  Cover with other half.  Separate
   dough into 4 pieces, using 2 rolls for each piece.  Roll each piece
   with a rolling pin until thin.  Wrap one thin piece of dough around
   chicken, covering completely.  Place chicken in baking pan and brush
   with egg yolk.  Cover pan with foil.  Bake at 350 degrees for 30
   minutes.  Uncover and bake another 20 to 30 minutes until golden
   brown.  Serve with currant sauce (below).  Serves 4.  Mix together
   and heat over low heat until melted.   


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