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On 10 Jun 2006 at 16:35, Gwen wrote:

> Hi
> I have just come back from Turkey where I ate a local bread called
> "Bazlama". I believe the town was Dalyan - south on the Lycian coast.
> It was a flatish small bread - but not unleaven. I believe the word
> translates as 'local bread'. Recipe if you can find it would be great!
> Thanks Gwen,  New Zealand

Hi Gwen

Timm, another reader, just sent me the below recipe.


Turkish Bazlama
There are several traditional home bread types in Turkey. One of them is
called as "bazlama" and it is very similar to Indian "naan". In old days
they were cooked on top of large steel sheets. In the local villages,
cooks still use steel sheets to cook them, but in the cities, people use
modern Teflon skillets to cook these. 
4 cups of flour
1-1/2 cups of warm water
1-1/2 tsp. active dry yeast 
1 tablespoon sugar
1 tablespoon salt
Dissolve the salt, sugar and yeast in water. Add the flour and make really
soft dough. If it is sticky sprinkle some flour, and if it is stiff, wet
your hand and keep kneading. Cover the dough with a damp cloth and keep it
at room temperature for 2 to 2-1/2 hours, until the dough doubles it's
When the dough ready, slice it to 5 pieces. Make balls from the dough and
put them on top of a damp cloth. Cover the dough balls with another damp
cloth. Keep them at room temperature for 10 minutes. Flatten the dough
balls until the thickness is 1/8 to 1/4 inch. Put them in between damp
cloths and keep them there for another 10 minutes.
Preheat a Teflon skillet on top of the stove. Use medium stove and keep
the heat at medium.  Put the dough onto the skillet and after 1 minute
start rotating and turning the dough with a help of a spatula. The dough
will puffed up. Rotating the dough with a spatula prevents burning the


On 15 Jul 2006 at 23:52, Bruce wrote:

> Dear Phaedrus
> My recipe books come from the States, Canada, Australia and New
> Zealand (where I live). Can you clear up for me once and for all the
> confusion I have between cornflour and corn starch in these various
> regional recipe books? Both ingredients seem to be available on the
> market shelves in all countries, but they seem to mean different
> things.
> Thanks
> Bruce

Hello Bruce,

Well, it should be simple, only it isn't. In the United States, the finely ground white pith of the corn kernel is called "cornstarch" or "corn starch". It's main use is as a thickening agent for sauces and gravies. In British recipes, this substance is, however, called "cornflour".

In the United States, finely ground cornmeal, used for baking, etc. is sometimes called "corn flour". It's differentiated from the more coarsely ground cornmeal because of it's fine texture, which is similar to that of wheat flour, so it is called corn flour. Unlike cornstarch, "corn flour" is the finely ground whole corn kernel, not just the starchy pith.

The problem is that we are all former British colonies, so while I can tell you about the U.S. and about Britain, I'm not sure about Australia, Canada, or New Zealand. I don't know if these countries use the British meaning or the U.S. meaning, and I wasn't able to find specific information on the web. All the references I found just said "in England" or "in Britain" or "in the UK" for the "cornflour" usage. I'd guess that in Canadian recipes the usage is the same as the U.S., but I don't know about Australia or New Zealand.

In general, I'd say in any American recipe, "corn flour" means finely ground cornmeal, and in UK recipes, "cornflour" means "cornstarch." If you are in doubt about a particular recipe, look at the amount used and how it's used. If it's a small amount and is being used to thicken a sauce or gravy, then it's likely cornstarch. If it's a larger quantity and is being used to make some kind of bread or bread product, then it's likely finely ground cornmeal or "corn flour".

Yes, the starch is usually given as the one word "cornflour" and the finely ground cornmeal is usually given as the two word "corn flour", but I'm not sure if that's consistent enough to be reliable.

A mixture of cornstarch and water is, or was, used to starch men's shirts and little girls' petticoats.

I suppose that, in the UK, "finely ground cornmeal" is simply called that, instead of "corn flour". In actual practice, the term "corn flour" is rarely used in most of the U.S. It may be more common in the Southwest, where finely ground cornmeal is more popular.

Finally,in the U.S. and Latin America, there is also a product called "Masa Harina". At first glance, this would appear to be finely ground cornmeal, but in truth, it is finely ground hominy. Whole corn kernels are boiled and soaked in an alkaline solution, then dried and ground into flour to make masa harina.


NY Deli Pasta Salad

On 13 Jul 2006 at 10:30, Maria wrote:

> Dear Phaedrus,
> I desperately crave the NY deli style macaroni salad of my youth.  I
> think it was sweetened with sugar or made with a Miracle Whip style of
> mayonnaise. Maybe it was even produced by Boars Head brand.
> Can you help?
> Many Many Thanks 
> Maria 

Hello Maria,

I can't find an authentic NY deli pasta salad recipe. Sorry. You might try the recipes below.

Your best bet for an authentic recipe is these books (available from Amazon):

"The Second Avenue Deli Cookbook : Recipes and Memories from Abe Lebewohl's Legendary Kitchen" (Hardcover) by Sharon Lebewohl, Rena Bulkin, Jack Lebewohl

"America's Great Delis : Recipes and Traditions from Coast to Coast" (Hardcover) by Sheryll Bellman

"The New York Cabbie Cookbook: More Than 120 Authentic Homestyle Recipes From Around the Globe" by Mary Ellen Winston

"Arthur Schwartz's New York City Food" by Arthur Schwartz


Deli Pasta Salad

8 ounces twist or spiral pasta
1/2 cup Hellmann's or Best Foods Real Mayonnaise
1/2 cup Wish-Bone Italian Dressing
2 cups assorted cut-up vegetables*
1/2 lb. your favorite deli cheese and/or meat, cut up (about 2 cups)

Cook pasta according to package directions; drain and rinse with cold water 
until completely cool.

In large bowl, combine mayonnaise with dressing. Stir in vegetables and 
deli cheese and/or meat. Toss in pasta and season, if desired, with salt 
and ground black pepper. 

Serve chilled or at room temperature. 

*Use red, green or yellow bell peppers; Spanish, red or green onions; 
carrots; tomatoes; cucumber; olives; artichoke hearts; broccoli; cauliflower;
 celery and/or roasted red peppers.

Servings: 5
Source: Best Foods 
Hellmann's Classic Macaroni Salad

8 ounces elbow macaroni (about 1-3/4 cups)
1 cup Hellmann's or Best Foods Real Mayonnaise
2 Tbsp. vinegar
1 Tbsp. Hellmann's or Best Foods Dijonnaise Creamy Dijon Mustard
1 tsp. sugar
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. ground black pepper
1 cup thinly sliced celery
1 cup chopped green or red bell pepper
1/4 cup chopped onion

Cook macaroni according to package directions; drain and rinse with cold 
water until completely cool.

In large bowl, combine mayonnaise, vinegar, mustard, sugar, salt and pepper. 
Stir in macaroni, celery, green pepper and onion. 

Serve chilled or at room temperature.

Makes 5 cups
Source: Best Foods 
The key ingredients in the dressing for deli macaroni (and potato) salad are: 
mayonnaise, vinegar, sugar, celery seed. 
The macaroni should be undercooked, and left wet for mixing with the dressing. 
Part of the delight is the texture. Thick elbow macaroni should be used.
The vegetables are celery, carrot and red pepper. That's it.
I like to add olives, capers, diced cheese, but that's me. I also add paprika 
and parsley flakes, dill flakes to the dressing.

Luby's Carrot Cake

On 4 Jul 2006 at 20:34, Emmanuel wrote:

> Hi could i have the recipe for lubys cafeterias carrot cake 

Hello Emmanuel,

See below.


Luby's Carrot Cake

3 extra-large eggs 
1 1/2 C. granulated sugar 
1 1/3 C. drained canned crushed pineapple 
1 1/3 C. finely chopped or shredded carrots 
1 C. vegetable oil 
1/2 C. pecan pieces 
1 1/2 t. baking powder 
1 t. baking soda 
1 t. ground cinnamon 
1 t. vanilla 
2 1/2 C. all-purpose flour 

1 C. butter or margarine, softened 
1 lb. powdered sugar 
4 oz. cream cheese, softened 
1/2 t. vanilla 

pecans and finely chopped carrots for garnish 

Heat oven to 350F. Lightly grease two 9-inch round cake pans. For cake, 
in large bowl, beat together eggs and sugar until blended. Add pineapple, 
carrots, oil, pecans, baking powder, baking soda, cinnamon and vanilla. 
Beat until well blended. Add flour. Mix just until well blended. Pour into 
pans. Bake 30 minutes or until wooden pick inserted in center comes out clean.
Cool on wire racks. 

For icing, in medium bowl, beat together butter and sugar until creamy. 
Add cream cheese and vanilla. Beat until smooth and creamy. Ice and fill
 completely cooled cake. Garnish with pecans and carrots. 

Costa Rican Recipes

Costa Rican Rice and Beans (Gallo Pinto)


2 cups long grain rice; cooked
1 cup black beans; cooked
1/2 cup onion; diced
1 clove garlic; minced
3 tsp oil
2 tablespoons coriander (cilantro) ; chopped


Heat oil in a frying pan on medium heat for a minute. Add chopped onions 
and saute until they are well browned and translucent. Turn the heat down 
to medium-low then add the beans and garlic. Cook while stirring occasionally 
for 8-10 minutes. Add rice and cook for a 3-5 more minutes. When the rice has 
been added, sprinkle salt until desired taste. Just before serving, top with 
the coriander and serve!
Hearts of Palm Salad

2 16-ounce cans of hearts of palm
1/3 cup chopped red bell pepper
1/3 cup chopped yellow bell pepper
1 tablespoon chopped parsley
1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice
1 tablespoon dijon mustard
2 tablespoons low-sodium chicken broth (remove fat)
1 tablespoon olive oil
ground pepper to taste
very small amount of salt (optional)
lettuce leaves

Drain the hearts of palm, cut them into 1/2-inch pieces, and put them into a 
large bowl. Stir in the red pepper, yellow pepper, and chopped parsley.

In a small bowl, whisk together the lemon juice, mustard, chicken broth, and 
olive oil. Drizzle the dressing over the hearts of palm mixture and toss gently.
 Season to taste with salt (optional) and pepper. Line a serving bowl with 
 lettuce leaves, spoon the salad on top and serve.
Arroz con Leche Recipe (Rice Pudding)

2 cups (470 ml) rice
4 cups (950 ml) milk
4 cups (950 ml) sugar
1 Tablespoon (15 ml) vanilla
1/2 teaspoon (2.5 ml) ground cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon (2.5 ml) ground cloves or 6 whole cloves
1/2 teaspoon (2.5 ml) grated fresh nutmeg
4 oz (110 gr) butter
1 cup (235 ml) raisins

Cook rice uncovered in 8 cups of water for 45 minutes until rice is quite 
soft. Stir in other ingredients and simmer for 1/2 hour.

Serve warm, or refrigerate at least four hours to serve cold.


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