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Jamaican Hardo Bread and Coco Bread

----- Original Message ----- 
  From: Beverly
  To: phaedrus 
  Sent: Thursday, August 09, 2001 9:05 AM
  Subject: Jamaican breads

  Dear Uncle Phaedrus, 
  I'm trying to find a recipe for 2 different breads that are a mainstay in Jamaican life. 
  One is for "Hardo" bread the other is for CoCo bread.  The coco bread is white in color 
  and very buttery in texture.   
  I'd appreciate your help. 
  Thanx,   Beverly 

Hi Beverly,

No problem with the coco bread. The recipe is below. The hardo bread was a little more difficult until I found that it can also be spelled "hardough." Recipes below.


  Jamaican Coco Bread

  2 1/4 cup flour
  1 cup sugar
  1 tbsp baking powder
  1/4 lb butter
  1 1/3 cup grated fresh coconut
  2 eggs beaten
  1/2 tsp vanilla
  2 cup heavy cream

  In lg bowl, mix flour, sugar, baking powder mix well. Using pastry 
  blender, work in butter. Add coconut and mix well. In separate bowl, 
  beat eggs, vanilla and cream and add to flour mixture. 
  Pour into greased loaf pan and bake 40-45 min.
  Hardough Bread 
  Ingredients : 

  6 cups bread flour 
  1 pack yeast (about 2 tablespoons) 
  1 teaspoons salt 
  1 pt warm water 
  1/4 cup sugar 
  4 ozs shortening 
  Milk or egg white for glazing 

  Pour flour in warm bowl. 
  Add shortening to flour & cut in with knife. 
  Add yeast, sugar, and salt 
  Add warm water 
  Knead until soft and roll out 
  Put in a warm place to rise approx. twice in size. 
  Glaze with milk or egg white. 
  Bake at 350F until done. 

  Traditional hard dough (home-baked) 

  1 1/2 lbs strong plain flour
  1/2 oz. fresh yeast or 1 rounded tsp. dried yeast
  2 tsp. salt
  1 tsp. sugar
  1/2 pint warm water

  (Commercial hard dough bread recipe includes 30 grams 
  (2 tbsps. shortening and the same amount of egg white (optional)

  Set oven at 230ºC or 450ºF. It takes 40 minutes for the loaf to bake. 
  All ingredients and utensils should be warmed to assist the fermentation.


  1. Dissolve the yeast in some of the liquid and add 1 teaspoon sugar. 
  Leave it to stand in a warm place for 10 minutes. This activates the 
  yeast and starts the fermentation process.
  2. Sieve the flour and salt. Rub in the fat if being used.
  3. Add the yeast liquid and the rest of the liquid all at once. 
  4. Mix quickly to a soft dough which is elastic and pliable.
  5. Knead the dough vigorously either by hand or in an electric mixer, 
  using dough hook. Kneading ensures thorough distribution of yeast in the 
  dough so that it is in contact with the natural sugars in the flour. 
  It also helps to develop the gluten so that it is capable of stretching 
  during fermentation.
  6. Cover the dough with a damp cloth to prevent the formation of a skin 
  and leave it to rise or 'proof' in a warm place for 1 to 2 hours. During 
  this time the process of fermentation takes place. The temperature inside 
  the dough should be about 25ºC (77ºF) to work efficiently.
  7. Knock back (punch) the dough by kneading it again to bring the yeast 
  into contact with more of the flour.
  8. Shape the dough into loaves or rolls. Place in the appropriate grease 
  tin and leave to rise again for 40 minutes so that more Carbon Dioxide gas 
  is produced.
  9. Bake according to directions until risen, set and golden brown in colour.
Back in 2001, you received a request for Coco bread a jamaican bread. 
I don't know if you still have the ability to contact those people etc but just for you, here is coco bread: 
Coco Bread

From: Lynda
Subject: Hi Uncle P
Date: Monday, June 22, 2015 2:13 AM

Jamaican Coco Bread

Many years ago, 2001 perhaps, you were asked for a recipe for Coco Bread made by the Sunrise Bakery in  Black River, Jamaica. 
I think I may have found it, in case anyone is still  interested and I intend to make it this week :)

Cheers from New Zealand


Coriander Soup

----- Original Message ----- 
  From: John 
  To: phaedrus 
  Sent: Saturday, August 11, 2001 5:55 PM
  Subject: corriander soup

  I am having a party and need a recipe

  Can you help


Hi John,

Try the ones below.


  Carrot Coriander Soup


  (serves 10)

  75 g butter 
  225 g onions, peeled and chopped 
  750 g carrots, scraped and sliced 
  3 tbsp plain flour 
  1,2 litres chicken stock 
  freshly ground pepper 
  1 tbsp ground coriander seeds 
  1 bayleaf 
  1 tbsp lemonjuice 
  6 dl milk 
  11/2 dl single cream 
  2 tbsp chopped fresh parsley to garnish 


  1. Melt butter, add onions, fry until soft and lightly coloured. 
     Add carrots. Styr and fry for 3 minutes. 
  2. Stir in flour, cook for 2 min., gradually stir in stock, bring 
     to boil. 
  3. Season well with salt, pepper. Add bayleaf, coriander and 
     lemonjuice. Simmer under lid for 30 min. (carrots very tender). 
  4. Discard bayleaf and purée the soup. You can freeze the soup at this  
  5. Add milk, bring to boil, add cream, adjust seasoning, garnish with 
  Zucchini Coriander Soup

  Recipe By     : 
  Serving Size  : 4    Preparation Time :0:00
  Categories    : Soups

    Amount  Measure       Ingredient -- Preparation Method
  --------  ------------  --------------------------------
       1/2   c            Chopped onion
     2       tb           Olive oil -- (28 Ounce can)
       3/4   lb           Zucchini -- cut into 1/2"
     1 1/2   c            Chicken broth
     1 1/2   c            Cilantro -- fresh, chopped.
     2       ts           Lemon juice

    In a large saucepan cook the onion in the oil over
    medium low heat stirring until softened.  Add zucchini
    and salt and pepper to taste. Cook covered, stirring
    occasionally for 4 minutes. Add broth and 1 1/4 c.
    water and simmer covered for 10 minutes or until
    zucchini is tender. Remove pan from heat and add
    corriander and let cool. Puree in processor in
    batches, transferring to bowl.  Add lemon and salt and
    papper to taste. Serve room temperature or chilled.  4
    cups or 4 servings.
    Recipe By     : Gourmet Magazine - 6/90`
  Indian Carrot & Coriander Soup

  Carrots  650 gms. 
  Onion, medium sized 1 nos. 
  Garlic, cloves 6-8 nos. 
  Green coriander  1 cup 
  Butter  2 tbsp. 
  Bay leaf 2 no. 
  Peppercorn 1 tsp. 
  White pepper powder  1/2 tsp. 
  Water  1200 ml. 
  Salt To taste  
  1. Wash, peel and roughly chop carrots. Peel and chop onion and garlic. 
     Wash and finely chop fresh coriander leaves and reserve the stems. 
  2. Heat butter in a pan, add bay leaves, peppercorns, onions and garlic 
     and fry for two minutes.
  3. Add carrots, coriander stems and water and bring to a boil.
  4. When the carrots are completely cooked, remove them and put in a 
     blender to make a fine puree.
  5. Reduce the stock slightly by boiling and strain.
  6. Take the puree in a pan and add strained stock to reach the desired
     consistency. Bring to a boil again. Add white pepper powder dissolved 
	 in a little water. Add salt to taste. Stir in finely chopped fresh
	 coriander leaves.
  7. Serve piping hot.  

Magnolia Petal Cake

From: S. L.
To: phaedrus
Subject: past request
Date: Saturday, August 11, 2001 1:29 PM

Dear Sir,
A couple months ago I submitted an inquiry about a magnolia 
petal cake. You kindly answered me, sharing what you had found 
(even though it was not exact).
The other day our local librarian  discovered the recipe for me. 
I thought I would share it with you for future reference in case 
someone else might ask you the same question.     S. L.

Magnolia Petal Cake

2 1/2 cups flour
1 1/2 cups sugar
4 teaspoons baking powder
1 teaspoon salt
7 tablespoons water
7 tablespoons milk
1 teaspoon vanilla
3/4 teaspoon orange extract
2/3 cup shortening
5 egg whites, unbeaten
1/4 teaspoon almond flavoring

Preheat oven to 375 degrees. Grease and flour 2 (9-inch) cake pans or 1 (9- 
by 13- by 2-inch) pan; set aside.
In a bowl, sift together flour, sugar, baking powder and salt. Add water, 
milk, vanilla and orange extract. Add shortening and beat 3 minutes. Add egg 
whites and beat 3 minutes. Divide batter between prepared cake pans. Bake for 
25 to 30 minutes or until cake tests done.

Plumbing Codes

----- Original Message ----- 
  From: mjhoff 
  To: phaedrus 
  Sent: Wednesday, August 08, 2001 11:16 PM
  Subject: Plumbing codes

  We're doing some remodeling & need to make sure we meet our 
  state's plumbing codes. How do I find them?  We live in 
  Thanks, Phaedrus.


The Minnesota State Plumbing Code is online at:

Minnesota State Plumbing Code

Don't forget, you may have city codes to meet and permits to acquire, and your construction may have to be officially inspected.

Hope this helps.


Rustico Sauce

----- Original Message -----
From: Margaret 
To: phaedrus
Sent: Tuesday, August 07, 2001 11:59 AM
Subject: Recipe for rustico sauce

> I have had ravioli rustico at a local restaurant--which I love. Would like
> to find the recipe for the sauce which appears to have tomato and eggplant
> chunks, some fresh herbs in a marinara-type sauce. Have looked online but
> find only restaurant menus with rustico dishes. Thanks for your help.
> Margaret 

Hi Margaret,

I could not find a recipe anywhere for "ravioli rustico" or "rustico sauce", or any variation thereof, including the usual spelling , which is "rustica" with an "a". There are a lot of Italian recipes that are called "rustica" or "alla rustica", but "rustica" is just a derivation of "rustic", and it means "country style". There is no "rustica" sauce per se. I am sending three "rustica" recipes below to illustrate. As you can see, none of them contain eggplant, and one does not even contain tomatoes. The only real link between "rustica" recipes is that they are supposed to be Italian "country-style".

I also searched for any ravioli recipe with tomatoes and eggplant in the sauce, but I came up blank on that also.

The dish you are enjoying may have another name in Italy, or it may be an Italian-American dish rather than a traditional Italian dish.


Penne Rustica

14 oz. box Real Torino Penne
3 oz. butter
3 oz. extra virgin olive oil
1/4 cup finely chopped shallots
2 cloves finely minced garlic
1/2 cup crushed walnuts
6 oz. panna or cream cheese
2 oz. shaved parmasano cheese
pinch of fresh, chopped italian parsley
1/3 teaspoon fresh crushed black pepper
1/4 teaspoon salt

Sautee shallots and garlic in olive oil until translucent. Add butter and
walnuts and cook until walnuts are browned but not burning. Add salt and
black pepper and stir in cream. Cook penne until al dente and mix
immediately with the sauce. Top with shaved parmsano cheese and parsley and
serve immediately.
Fusilli Alla Rustica
Fusilli with vegetables, herbs, olives, and hot pepper
Serves 4 to 6

A host of lively components animate this sauce: basil, oregano, olives,
capers, hot pepper, pecorino cheese. But do not be daunted by the number of
ingredients. Once you have set them up, it all goes very quickly because
most of them cook briefly or hardly at all. That is part of the secret of
the brisk flavor of the sauce. Please note that the tomatoes are fresh, raw
tomatoes that are peeled, diced very small, and cooked only 5 minutes.

1/2 cup extra virgin olive oil
3 cups onion sliced very thin
4 large or 6 small garlic cloves, peeled and sliced thin
3 ounces pancetta, cut into thin strips
2 tablespoons chopped parsley
1 large, meaty sweet bell pepper (preferably yellow, but not available,
red), cored, seeded, skinned raw with a peeler, and cut into strips about 2
inches long and 1/2 inch wide.
1 pound fresh, ripe plum tomatoes, skinned raw with a peeler and diced
into 1/2-inch cubes
1/2 teaspoon oregano
1/2 cup green olives in brine, drained, pitted, and sliced into thin rings
2 tablespoons tiny capers
1 teaspoon hot red pepper, or more to taste
8 fresh basil leaves, torn by hand into small pieces
1 pound fusilli
Freshly grated cheese: 1/2 cup mellow pecorino, if available; otherwise, 3
tablespoons romano and 5 tablespoons parmigiano-reggiano

1. In a 10-to 12-inch sauté pan put the oil, onion, garlic, pancetta, and
parsley. Turn on the heat to medium low and cook the onion, stirring from
time to time, until it is tender but not brown.

2. Add the pepper, stir occasionally, and cook slowly until tender. Add
salt, stir, turn up the heat to high, and add the tomatoes. Cook for 5
minutes over high heat, stirring frequently, or until the tomatoes are no
longer watery, then add the oregano, olives, capers, hot pepper, and basil.
Stir once or twice, then remove from the heat.

3. Drop the fusilli into a pot of abundant boiling salted water. Cook until
tender but firm to the bite. Drain immediately, toss at once in a warm bowl
with the vegetable sauce, add the grated cheese, toss again, and serve

Torta Rustica
Cost: $ ; Preparation Time: 25 minutes
Difficulty Level: 2 ; Servings: 6


1/2 cup Sonoma dried tomato halves, halved with kitchen shears
1 cup ricotta cheese
1/2 cup grated Parmesan cheese
2 eggs
2 (9-inch) frozen pie shells
1 cup spaghetti sauce
6 ounces thinly sliced mozzarella cheese
1 small green bell pepper, very thinly sliced
1 can (2-1/4 ounces) sliced ripe olives, drained


Preheat oven to 400 degrees.

In bowl cover tomatoes with boiling water; set aside 10 minutes. Thoroughly
drain tomatoes and pat dry with paper towels.

In small bowl, combine ricotta, Parmesan and eggs; set aside. While still
frozen, remove 1 pie shell from tin. Lay out flat on baking sheet; cover
with plastic wrap and refrigerate.

Into remaining crust, spoon half the ricotta mixture. Layer with half the
remaining ingredients; repeat. Top with reserved crust, crimping edges to
seal. Cut a few slits in top crust.

Bake 40 to 45 minutes, or until crust is golden. Cool at least 15 minutes.
Serve warm or at room temperature.
Orecchiette Rustica
This recipe brought to you by
Windham Hill Inn, West Townshend, Vermont

Orecchiette Rustica with a Fennel-Artichoke Provencal Relish

3 cups fresh orecchiette pasta
1 cup arugula
1 cup broccoli rappini
1 tsp. fresh chopped garlic


1 oz. diced marinated artichoke hearts
1 oz. diced fresh fennel
4 oz. peeled seeded diced plum tomato
2 oz. diced yellow pepper
2 oz. diced red pepper
2 oz. diced sun-dried tomato
2 Tbs. fresh chopped garlic
3 oz. extra virgin olive oil

Cook orecchiette in boiling water until done, 4-5 minutes. Strain and set

Combine artichoke hearts, fennel, tomato, yellow and red peppers and
sun-dried tomato. Season to taste with garlic, olive oil, salt and pepper.
(If you like, 1 tsp. fresh chopped rosemary is a wonderful addition).
Lightly saute the arugula and broccoli rappini with a tablespoon of olive
oil, fresh garlic and a few drops of water over medium heat until wilted.
Season with salt and pepper.

To serve, heat pasta in boiling water for 30 seconds. In a medium sauce pot
heat relish, add wilted greens and adjust seasoning. Portion pasta in 6
serving dishes and top with provencal relish. Serves 6.


Copyright (c) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Phaedrus