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Baby's Eye Color

----- Original Message ----- 
  From: Sue 
  To: phaedrus 
  Sent: Saturday, September 08, 2001 5:56 AM
  Subject: How old-

  Do you know how old a baby has to be to determine what color of 
  eyes she has?

Hi Sue,

I checked several references, and this is what I found:

1) A white child's eyes are almost always slate gray or deep blue at birth. A non-white child's are almost always brown or light brown at birth.

2) Pigment is added gradually for about the first year of life, and a baby's eyes may change colors more than once during this time.

3) Final eye color is usually attained by 1 year, although it may occasionally take as long as 18 mos or as short as 6 mos - or they may occasionally stay slate gray or blue or brown and not change at all.

This information all came from Doctors or pediatric sites. However, we read anecdotal evidence from parents who said that their baby's eyes changed color as late as age 3. These stories are just anecdotal, though, and the pediatric sites mentioned none of these cases.


Pickled Sausage

----- Original Message -----
From: garrison
To: phaedrus
Sent: Wednesday, September 12, 2001 10:15 PM
Subject: pickled sausages

> Is there such a recipe for pickled sausage?


Well, if you're persistent enough, you can usually find some sort of recipe for just about anything, but sometimes you have to buy the book.

Canning and pickling meats is very dangerous. To *really* make pickled sausage requires a special canner that cans at temperatures of 240 or more. The reason is because home canned meats are prime candidates for a fatal form of food poisoning known as botulism. Don't take any chances!

We could find *no* recipes for making *real* pickled sausage either on the web or in our library. There are books available that cover the subject. You are probably going to have to buy a book for that recipe.

That said, we located a recipe that will give you the *taste" of pickled sausage without (we hope) the danger. At least it's a refrigerator pickle. *TRY AT YOUR OWN RISK.*


This recipe came from Neosoft's recipe archive:

"We pickle sausage all the time. We use smoked sausage that is 
already cooked. We slice it into 1 inch sections and put it in a 
canning jar (one of those ones with the latch lids). I fill up the 
jar with sausage and then fill it up with white vinegar to about 1/2
inch from the top. I then add some dried, crushed red pepper (to taste)
maybe 2 tablespoons. We have found that putting the open jar into a pot 
of boiling water (standing up of course) until the vinegar boils helps
the taste.  Seal the jar, and put it in the fridge. Within two days you 
have very tasty pickled sausage. It seems to last several weeks. I don't 
know how long exactly, cause it never "lasts" more than several weeks."

Light Lemon Cookies

----- Original Message -----
From: Pucky
Sent: Friday, September 07, 2001 9:41 AM
Subject: cookie search

> I just started a small bakery business and I cater to a neighborhood
> Italian restaurant the owner would like me to make a light lemon cookie
> to be served with fruit after dinner. Do you have any suggestions?
>  Thank You
>  Pucky
>  Great Site!

Hi Pucky,

Glad you like the site!

Below are several recipes. I would suggest that you choose one of the anginetti recipes, which are described as just what you ask for - a "light lemon cookie".


Anginetti (Italian Iced Lemon Cookies)

1/2 cup white sugar
6 tablespoons butter or margarine
2 teaspoons vanilla extract
1 teaspoon grated lemon peel
3 eggs
2 cups all-purpose flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
1 tablespoon butter or margarine
3 cups sifted confectioners' sugar
2 tablespoons water
2 tablespoons lemon juice
1 teaspoon vanilla extract

Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Line cookie sheet with parchment paper.

In a mixing bowl beat sugar, vanilla, lemon peel and 6 tablespoons of butter
with an electric mixer until well blended. Add eggs one at a time, beating
well after each addition. Continue to beat for 1 minute.

Stir in flour and baking powder (will be a soft, sticky dough). Spoon dough
into a pastry bag fitted with a 3/8-inch round tip. Pipe 2-inch diameter
rings onto the prepared cookie sheet.

With moistened fingertips, press ends of each ring together to form a smooth
ring. Bake about 20 minutes or until golden brown.

To make icing: Melt 1 tablespoon of butter over low heat. Add sugar, water,
lemon juice and vanilla and whisk until sugar melts and mixture is heated
through. Thin with more water if icing is too thick to brush.

Remove cookies from oven and immediately brush warm icing over hot cookies.
Cool iced cookies on sheet for 2 minutes. Transfer to a rack and cool
completely. Makes 2 dozen
Lemon Drop Cookies (Anginetti)

What you need:

3 eggs
l/2 cup milk
2 tsp. lemon extract
l/2 cup sugar
l/2 cup vegetable oil
3 cups flour
8 tsp.baking powder
What you do:

Heat oven to 350 degrees. In an electric mixer on medium speed, beat eggs,
milk, lemon extract, sugar, and oil until well blended.
On low speed, add flour and baking powder. Mix until just blended. The dough
should be soft and sticky. Lightly dust the dough and your fingers with a
little additional flour.
Drop dough from a teaspoon onto a lightly greased cookie sheet, spacing
cookies 2 inches apart. Bake immediately for 8-10 minutes or until lightly
Remove cookies from cookie sheet onto wire racks. Cool. Frost with Lemon
confectioners' sugar.

If it is necessary to freeze cookies, use heavy-duty plastic freezer bags
and freeze the cookies unfrosted. Makes about 50 cookies.
Lemon Confectioners' Frosting

What you need:

6 cups confectioners' sugar
2 tsp. lemon extract
l/2 cup water
What you do:

In an electric mixer on medium speed, beat all ingredients until smooth.
Using a metal spatula, frost the tops of the cookies. The frosting will drip
down the sides and coat the cookies. Dry the frosted cookies on racks. Store
in airtight container
Note:You can substitute anise or another extract to create different
flavors. This cookie is popular on wedding cookie platters or other
Italian Lemon Sprinkle Cookies

6 eggs (beat well)
3 quarters of a cup crisco (melted and cooled)
1 cup sugar add slowly
5 cups of flour (sifted)
3 teaspoons of baking powder
2 tablespoons of lemon extract (add after everything is mixed well)

Combine all the ingredients and mix well. Place the dough in the
refrigerator for 1 half hour or longer. Take small amount at a time in hand
and roll as large as walnut. Place on the greased cookie sheet. Bake at 3350
degrees for about 10 minutes.


1 pound of powdered sugar
little bit of milk
1 teaspoon of lemon extract

While cookie is still warm dip into glaze. Set on wax paper and sprinkle
with sugar (red or green candy sprinkles).
White Italian Cookies

 6 eggs
1 C. sugar
6 C. flour
5 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
4 tsp. lemon juice
1/2 C. milk
1 1/2 C melted crisco
lemon zest, 2-3 tsp. optional

  Beat eggs.  Add sugar.  Add flour, baking powder, salt, lemon juice, milk,
melted crisco and lemon zest.  Shape into balls.  Bake at 350* for 10
minutes or till lightly browned.  When cool frost with icing.
(confectionery sugar and a little water or milk.)
  Genets (Lemon Italian Cookies) *

Recipe By     : Susan
Serving Size  : 36   Preparation Time :0:30
Categories    : Desserts/Cookies

  Amount  Measure       Ingredient -- Preparation Method
--------  ------------  --------------------------------
   5      cups          flour
   1      cup           sugar
   5      teaspoons     baking powder
   1      cup           vegetable oil
   1      cup           milk
   1      pinch         salt
   2      teaspoons     lemon juice
   2                    eggs
                        Frosting Ingredients:
   3      cups          confectioner's sugar
   4      tablespoons   butter or margarine
   6      tablespoons   orange juice
   2      teaspoons     lemon juice
   2 1/2  teaspoons     vanilla

Roll into 1" balls.  Bake at 350 for 15 minutes until set, not brown.

Makes 36 cookies

Space Food Sticks

----- Original Message -----
From: debbra 
To: phaedrus
Sent: Saturday, September 08, 2001 4:20 PM
Subject: Space food Sticks

> Is there any store where i can buy Space food Sticks?Or is there a
> recipr where i can make them.Your reponse would be appreiated.Thanks a
> bunch

Hi Debbra,

I have three recipes for these below. The commercial version of Space Food Sticks was made by Pillsbury, and was discontinued in the 1980s.

Maybe I'm missing something regarding the nostalgia associated with these, but except for the name and shape, there seems to be little difference between these and the numerous types and brands of "protein bars" and "energy bars" that are sold in health food stores. Actually, things like peanut butter flavored "Tiger's Milk" energy bars are probably better for you nutritionally than "Space Food Sticks."

I'm the right age to remember them, and I was one of the first kids in my neighborhood to holler for Tang (because the astronauts drank it!), but I only vaguely recall "Space Food Sticks".

The first recipe is likely the closest you're going to get to a homemade version of these.


 Space  Food  Sticks

 Ingredients :
 1 c. crunchy peanut butter
 1 c. dry powdered milk
 2 tbsp. wheat germ
 2 tbsp. or 2 pkg. Knox unflavored gelatin
 2/3 c. honey (or corn syrup, light)
 1/8 tsp. salt

 Preparation :
    Mix together all dry ingredients.  Cut in the peanut butter.  Add
 the honey (or corn syrup).  Thoroughly mix.  Shape into "space
 sticks" or shape desired. Store in plastic covered dish.  A good
 snack food and lunch box treat, since this recipe doesn't require chilling.
 Space  Food

 Ingredients :
 1 c. peanut butter
 1 c. powdered milk
 1/2 c. honey Granola
 Wheat germ
 Crushed cereal

 Preparation :
   Mix all ingredients in mixing bowl.  Roll into 1 inch balls and
 chill in refrigerator.  Before serving, roll into one of the following:
 wheat germ, crushed cereal, or coconut.
Space  Food  Sticks

 Ingredients :
 1 c. peanut butter
 1/2 c. honey
 2 c. dry powdered milk
 1/2 c. raisins
 1/2 c. finely grated carrots
 1 c. uncooked oatmeal
 1/4 c. wheat germ
 1/4 c. coconut
 Little water

 Preparation :
    Mix all of the ingredients thoroughly.  Shape into sticks the
 size of fingers. Roll in coconut if desired. Chill in refrigerator.

Is Toasted Bread Hazardous to Your Health?

----- Original Message -----
From: LH
To: phaedrus
Sent: Saturday, September 08, 2001 8:49 AM
Subject: Toast

> Is there a theory that toasting bread is harmful to our health?


Here's the real scoop:

Anytime you "brown" a food, whether it's bread or beef or chicken or fish or french fries, you are doing two things - you are destroying some of the protein in the food, and you are creating some carcinogens and mutagens, both of which have the potential to be harmful with heavy and prolonged exposure.

That kinda kills the old saw that your mother used to tell you about the brown crust of bread being the best part, doesn't it....?

Dig a little more, and you find that this is also true of fried potatoes, and of coffee. These bad chemicals are created in coffee when the beans are roasted, and that's not even counting the caffeine. One particular mutagen, diacetyl, is found in coffee, bourbon whiskey, wine, apple brandy, sake, toasted bread, soy sauce, tomatoes, boiled potatoes, and roast turkey. Hydrogen peroxide is found in large amounts in coffee. Diacetyl is also what makes butter smell like butter, so if you butter your toast, you've got a chemical feast. Also, when you toast bread, you destroy much of the lysine in it. Lysine is a valuable amino acid that balances the protein content of bread. Toasted bread also contains some beryllium, another carcinogen.

Cured meats contain small amounts of nitrates, which your body turns into nitrites - another carcinogen.

Now, if you stop there, as some health food faddists do, then you would think that you should stop eating toast, and most meat, particularly grilled meats, and that you should definitely stop drinking coffee. The faddists would have you become a vegetarian or even have you eat only raw vegetables.

But wait! If you dig a little deeper, you find that high amounts of nitrate are a normal component of vegetables. Beets, celery, lettuce, spinach, radishes and rhubarb all contain about 200 milligrams of nitrate per 100 gram portion (2000 parts per million). Cruciferous vegetables such as mustard, kale, turnips and cabbage are also high in nitrate. As we said, tomatoes and boiled potatoes contain the mutagen diacetyl.

Also, there are several other compounds which are believed to be carcinogenic that are naturally found in the vegetables that faddists push. Foods containing these substances include alfalfa sprouts, apricots, apples, peaches, cherries, pears, plums, almonds, lima beans, corn, yams, chickpeas, and cashew nuts. Bruised potatoes and potatoes that have begun to sprout contain large amounts of a potentially lethal compound (solanine and chaconine - cholinesterase inhibiters affecting nerve transmissions).

And these don't even include pesticide residue and fertilizer nitrates that may be present in vegetables.

The bottom line is that, no matter what you eat, the odds are that it contains some chemical that some study somewhere has shown to be potentially "bad" in some way. And, more often than not, some follow-up study by another researcher has had different results, showing that the food is not as harmful as the first study showed. Food science is not always an exact science.

Remember the oat bran thing of a few years ago? Remember when we were told to cut out eggs altogether? Remember when milk was touted as a health food for adults? Have you read the latest studies about fiber and colon cancer? Many, many of these early studies and ideas are being questioned now. Experimental results are questionable until they have been verified by other researchers. This is an important part of the scientific method that is called "repeatability". Any research must be repeatable and the results must be verified before it is accepted as fact. Food faddists will cite any single experiment that seems to verify what they already believe and will ignore other research that disagrees with what they believe.

The experiments that have shown that the chemicals named above are harmful all used high concentrations of those chemicals in laboratory conditions. No lab rat ever got cancer from eating one or two slices of buttered toast per day along with an otherwise balanced diet. Neither will you. Eat your toast, get a balanced diet, and pay attention only to verified research from reputable sources and to your doctor regarding things that you shouldn't eat.




Copyright (c) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Phaedrus